2 2 4 2 6 2 N 2 Formula Urine Analysis and Laboratory Tests

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Urine Analysis and Laboratory Tests

Urine analysis data is usually divided into two; qualitative and quantitative data on urine lab tests. As their names say, qualitative tests are to evaluate the characteristics of Urine such as color, transparency, etc., while quantitative tests, try to find the amounts of other indicators in Urine such as volume, specific gravity, amount of pathological components. Urine (blood, proteins, creatinine, etc.).

Standard data for Urine laboratory tests

Color of Urine

� On the first day of a baby’s life, urine is colorless

� On the 2-4th days – dark-red, because the majority of Urea has been released.

� In breastfed babies the urine is almost colorless until they start drinking fruit juice and eating other foods around 4-6 months

� In formula-fed babies, all children and adults, urine is straw yellow.

Urine color change can be physiological. For example;

� Colorless urine is produced when a person drinks a lot of fluids

� Urine acquires an Orange color when food is high in carotene (carrot);

� Urine will be pink after eating red-beet;

� Some medications affect the color of Urine. SO, rifampicin causes red color of Urine, analginum and sulfacylamides-pink, mitroxolinum-saffron-yellow.

Some changes in urine have diagnostic value in the presence of kidney disorders:

� Dark-brown urine is a sign of hepatitis virus; the cause of such a color is a large amount of bile pigments hyperbilirubinuria); the symptom forms a yellow foam after shaking such Urine.

� Smoky brown urine, similar to tea or cola, is formed when there is nephron damage, when RBCs pass through the basal membrane of the glomerular capsule and lose hemoglobin. It is the main symptom of poststreptococcal glomerulonephritis

� A bright red color can be found when “new” RBCs pass through the urine in the case of trauma, kidney tuberculosis, crystals, cystitis, urethritis, kidney tumor.

� Dark-violet color change is a sign of RBCs massive hemolysis in case of poisoning, Rh-conflict, mistakes during blood transfusion etc.


Urine may be cloudy in a newborn only 2-3 days after birth. Then every healthy person produces clear urine. Cloudy, dark opalescent urine can be found in the case of a urinary tract infection, an increased amount of crystals, RBCs or WBCs, pus or fat in the urine.

Quantitative Data for Urine Lab Tests

Diuresis means the process of producing urine. Urine volume (UV per 24 hours) is its laboratory expression. Its meanings depend on the age.

Pathological changes in urine volume

� Polyuria is diagnosed when the volume of urine exceeds the normal range by 2 or more times. It is a common symptom of disorders in other processes of reducing cardiac edema, diabetes, diabetes insipidus). Renal polyutia develops in the case of progressive nephritic edema, chronic kidney failure.

� Oliguria refers to a decrease in daily urine output in the age range and below. Renal Oliguria is one of the most important symptoms of kidney failure. There may be other causes of Oliguria such as profuse bleeding, diarrhea, poisoning, heart failure, shock. It is very important to identify the cause of Oliguria because the treatment plans can be very different when the volume of Urine reduces to less than 5% of the normal data or there is no Urine throughout the day. It is one of the most dangerous conditions in a child’s life and requires urgent medical attention.

� Anuria can

1. Kidneys – the kidneys do not make urine due to severe damage to their tissues.

2. Postrenal (mechanical) – Urine is produced, but does not enter the bladder due to a high path or blockage of the bladder neck.

� Nocturia, the normal ratio of daytime and nighttime urine volume is 2:1. That means that due to the large volume of fluids and physical activity, urine output is stronger during the day. If the night Urine volume is large, it is an indication of decreased kidney function.

Ph of urine

This symptom depends on age, diet, prescribed medications and varies from person to person and from one person to another at different times.

Specific gravity

It is the concentration of electrolytes and other soluble substances in the urine. Some weight loss can be seen in the case of drinking a lot of water, severe kidney failure, the reverse of the development of edema, diabetes insipidus. An increase is seen in Oliguria, diabetes, marked protein excretion. The excretion of 0.1g of glucose per 11 Urine causes an increase in specific gravity of 0.004; 0.4 of protein-in 0.001.

Urinalysis indicators that deviate from normal are indicators of metabolic disorders

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