# Cardiac Output Can Be Determined By The Following Formula Blood Pressure Terminology

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## Blood Pressure Terminology

Traditionally, BP measurements describe two basic pressures (Systolic pressure and Diastolic pressure). This article explains why diastolic blood pressure should be called ‘base or baseline systolic blood pressure.’

Whenever BP is measured, external pressure (cuff-induced) combines with baseline arterial pressure to challenge the heart to pump blood beyond the vasoconstricted area. For example, when the brachial artery is vasoconstricted to a large extent, the heart cannot pump blood beyond that pressure section until the pressure is released to a certain extent, so that the heart shows its maximum capacity to work against high resistance. At some point, when the examiner lowers the pressure on the cuff, heart sounds begin to appear and this point can be called ‘high systolic pressure.’ This article shows the most powerful way to resist that person’s heart can work against it.

Next, when a gradual decrease in cuff pressure occurs, at a point, heart sounds begin to disappear and this point can be called ‘low systolic pressure.’ The point where the heart sound disappears allows the artery to return to its original size and offer only its own resistance. This point shows the baseline pressure (no cuff-induced pressure) at which the heart must work.

Let’s look at two definitions of heart diastole.

Definition 1: Cardiac diastole is the period of time during which the heart relaxes after contraction to prepare for filling with circulating blood.

Statement 2: Diastole is that phase of the cardiac cycle when the heart refuses to pump blood to the body, brain and lungs but instead relaxes and fills with incoming blood.

These two statements must be combined with two formulas.

Formula 1: Blood pressure = Cardiac output x Peripheral vascular resistance

Formula 2: Blood Flow = Pressure / Resistance

We need to combine definitions and formulas to understand the following;

Diastole is the stage at which cardiac output becomes zero. Therefore, during diastole, the blood pressure caused by blood flow becomes zero.

BP (caused by blood flow during diastole) = 0 x Peripheral vascular resistance

= 0 mmHg

In fact, the pressure in the arteries does not go to zero during diastole (because the hydrostatic pressure is still there during diastole) but the pressure caused by the flow of blood pumped by the heart becomes zero.

Since both blood pressure values ​​are measured during the systolic phase (blood pumping phase) of the heart, the term diastolic pressure does not correspond to the actual physiologic state of circulation and may lead to misunderstandings. Finally, the ‘diastolic pressure’ is usually the baseline pressure at which the heart’s systole occurs. Baseline systolic pressure is the proper term to use to indicate the lowest pressure obtained during BP measurement. For example, if your BP tests at rest (at rest) show 120 mm Hg/70 mm Hg, then;

(a) 120 mm Hg is the maximum resistance (maximum systolic pressure) at which his heart can pump blood.

(b) 70 mm Hg is the lowest resistance (low systolic pressure or base systolic pressure) at which his heart works or should work.

However a consensus needs to be developed to replace ‘diastolic pressure’ as the baseline systolic pressure. Doctors and health professionals are really very concerned about the base BP or the resistance of the base where the heart works and to help stabilize the abnormality if there is.

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