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## Radio Wave Propagation Models Used in RF Coverage Analysis

Radio transmission can be classified as LOS (Line of Sight) and non-LOS modes. LOS is point-to-point propagation without obstacles in between. Non-LOS is indirect propagation in the absence of LOS method which includes deflection, reflection and propagation. In the HF band (3 – 30 MHz), broadcasting mainly uses sky waves for long distance communication. VHF and UHF (30 MHz – 3 GHz) waves travel through LOS and ground bounce propagation. SHF (3 to 30 GHz) radio uses strictly LOS transmission.

The purpose of the propagation model is to determine the probability of satisfactory operation of a wireless system that relies on the propagation of radio waves. In the planning of RF systems, the propagation model is the purpose of RF analysis. This analysis uses the propagation model and ground data to predict the area covered by the RF transmitter, the received signal strength at the end of the wireless link, the path loss from the transmitter to the receiver distance, the tilt angle of the transmitter, the minimum antenna length to establish the communication path of Interference and channel degradation such as spread delay due to multipath termination.

Broadcast models for different applications, environments and regions have been developed by the US government, private organizations and international bodies such as the International Telecommunication Union (ITU). These models are based on a large amount of empirical data collected with the aim of characterizing the distribution of the application. Because distribution models are developed using statistical methods, no single model will be perfect for any application. It is a good idea to employ two or more independent models and use the results as expected performance limits. The following is a list of the most commonly used ground propagation models.

**Longley-Rice**

The Longley-Rice model predicts long-term transmission losses in irregular soils. It is designed for frequencies from 20 MHz to 20 GHz and path lengths from 1 to 2000 Km. The model calculates the soil, climate, subsurface conditions and the curvature of the earth. The Longley-Rice model has two modes, point-to-point and regional. Point-to-point mode uses detailed terrain data and features to estimate path loss, while location mode uses extensive information about terrain features to estimate path loss.

**Okumura**

Okumura’s model is based on measurements made in Tokyo in 1960, between 200 and 1920 MHz. The measured values are used to determine the power of the central region and several correction factors. Correction factors include adjustments for urbanization rate, terrain roughness, base station antenna height, mobile antenna height and local interference. Okumura’s model is especially used in urban areas when calculating areas where there are many obstacles and buildings.

**Costs 231**

The Cost 231 Model, also called the Hata model PCS extension, is used in most commercial RF equipment for mobile phone programming. Covering the Cost 231 model is a frequency between 1500 to 2000 MHz, an effective antenna transmission height between 30 to 200 m, an effective antenna height between 1 to 10 m and and link distance from 1 to 20 km. The Cost Model 231 is limited to applications where the base station antenna is above adjacent rooftops.

**Egli**

The Egli model is a simplified model based on the power play of measured data in a mathematical formula. Its ease of implementation makes it a popular choice for use in initial analysis. It assumes a gentle hill height of about 50 meters and no ground elevation data between transmitter and receiver is required for the model. The average path loss is adjusted to the length of the transmission and receiving antenna above ground. The model consists of a single equation for propagation loss.

**IT**

The ITU ground model is based on diffraction theory which provides a way to estimate medium path loss. The model predicts the path loss as a function of the height of the road block and the initial Fresnel position of the transmission chain. The model is suitable for measuring line-of-sight links at any location and is suitable for any frequency and path length. The model describes the constraints between the communication chain, so it is suitable for use both within cities and open spaces. The model is considered effective for losses greater than 15 dB.

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