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Tourism in Western Europe: A Collection of Case Histories
Richard Voase provides an interesting collection of research studies on tourism development in Western Europe. The research studies are well organized into three thematic areas based on politics, economics and socio-culture. The collection of stories conveys changes in tourism development and practices and shows how tourism development requires new ways of thinking about tourism. Voase concludes that the tourism experience, on the part of travelers, shows signs of effective decision-making through temporary use. This point makes the reader think that tourists prefer “canned” experiences that are carefully constructed, however accessible through extensive research and decision-making.
The case studies are authored by different authors with strong local ties to the area they are writing about which gives a unique insight into the issues facing the tourism industry in Europe and North America (although North America is not the main focus of this book). This book can be used in a tourism development course to help students identify current issues in tourism (eg, environmental challenges, sustainability, conservation practices) and to build on definitions and theoretical models in tourism.
In his introduction, Voase conveys that the analysis or interpretation of cases is based on political, economic, social and technological factors. The analysis captures the diversity of the tourism product and the cultural and social aspects related to current ideas, which affect the way tourism develops. Such ideas are related to the widespread trends of postmodernism that seem to affect those consumer behaviors, which embrace the consumption of experiences rather than the processes of producing products or services.
This book has eleven chapters. The first four chapters are viewed through the lens of political context analysis. The first chapter, by Meethan, presents the role of tourism marketing and public policy in the regions of Devon and Cornwall, England. Meethan concludes that in these two countries “marketing was one aspect of a comprehensive joint policy aimed at fully integrating tourism into the regional economy” and these programs would not have been possible without funding from the European Union (EU). “The cases of Devon and Cornwall also show how new organizational forms emerge as a response to wider structural changes”.
Chapter 2, by Morpeth, focuses on the role of leisure and tourism as political tools in Britain in the 1980s. Local governments and local governments use recreation and leisure policies as an extension of urban policy to balance the negative effects of unemployment and structural problems seen in England in the 1980s. Morpeth discusses the state of Middlesbrough city and the role of Thatcherism’s policies in the city, focusing on the development of inner cities and the use of tourism as a tool for regeneration.
Chapter 3, by Voase, discusses the impact of political, economic and social change on the mature tourist scene; The Isle of Thanet in southeast England. Voase concludes that the process of policy, planning and tourism development in a mature area is not always straightforward. Oppositional politics among stakeholders involved in tourism development has led to disagreements about the development of the destination. Chapter 4, by Robledo and Batle, focuses on Mallorca as a case study of reinvesting tourism development in a mature area using Butler’s (1980) product life cycle perspective. As a mature destination, Mallorca needs a sustainable development plan to survive in the future. This recognition led the Ministry of Tourism of the Government of the Balearic Islands to establish a policy of providing tourism to protect the environment. This plan however, as identified by Robledo and Bade, is an interesting situation of struggle between different groups (that is, the government, ecological groups, councils, hoteliers, construction industry) protecting their interest in the development of tourism. Voase identifies these first four chapters as having three common themes: the role and interaction of local government levels in policy formulation and implementation, the role of politics as a tool to promote and control economic interests, and the powerful social impact. -cultural issues. While these commonalities are not directly apparent in the study of a given subject, Voase fills that gap with his writings. These common factors can stimulate an ongoing debate about what is the role of politics in tourism and how policy can affect researchers and practitioners in the field.
The second part of the book focuses on the economics of tourism and its use as a tool for revitalization and wealth creation. Chapter 5, by Lewis, focuses on two agro-ecological systems, Tir Cymen and Tir Gofal, and how they have affected access to recreation in rural Wales. This chapter shows how these plans led to many changes in agricultural practices in Wales. These changes have had a positive impact on recreational opportunities on Wales’ farmland and have changed the relationship between “rural and urban areas and new demands for rural access, all of which now reflect the interdependence of environmental health, local socio-economic needs, and access to recreational land”.
Chapter 6, by Lindroth and Soisalon-Soinimen, discusses how a historical tourist product developed in Loviisa, Finland. The purpose of tourism development was to create an image of Loviisa as a historical tourist destination and to create new products in accordance with the historical context. Lindroth and Soisalon-Soinimen identified that without the support of the tourist office, and the National Board of Antiquities, the development could not progress much. Also, funding from the European Union helped with training and expert assistance. The experts and project leaders involved in the process shape the project through their own interests which are described in detail in the case study.
Chapter 7, by Bohn and Elbe, tells the story of one man and how his vision for the municipality of Alvdalen, Sweden transformed the town into a tourist destination. The most important thing in this story is that this man created a hunting ground without being an expert in the field of tourism development. He used the modern concept of relationship marketing to achieve successful development without knowing its full value as a marketing tool. This chapter also emphasizes the importance of cooperation between stakeholders involved in tourism. Voase identifies what these three situations share: the role of individual entrepreneurs in product development, the use of natural resources, and tourism focused on the heritage of the past.
The third part of the book focuses on the social and cultural context of tourism in four case studies. Chapter 8, by Finn, discusses the transition of European football from a fan’s game to a spectator’s game. Finn identifies current methods of sports marketing, which create products, or experiences where fans’ identity does not correspond to the current “sophisticated” processes of consumption, and instead, the identity of the spectators corresponds to those images and processes promoted by sports marketers inside and outside of football. sports fields.
Chapter 9, by Baron-Yelles, focuses on tourism and the politics of nature-based tourism and how the ‘Great National Park at La Point du Raz’ has driven changes in tourism supply services and infrastructure to meet tourist needs. The reader can consider the trade-off between natural resources and the provision of tourism experiences. This research also shows how the destination has responded to stakeholders’ views on coastal conservation, public access and permissible levels of visitation.
Chapter 10, by Lohmann and Mundt, focuses on the maturation of cultural tourism markets in Germany. The chapter discusses how tourism shapes culture through the exchange of experiences between travelers and residents of the destination. Travel and tourism are discussed as cultural objects. Lohmann and Mundt concluded that travel has become an important part of people’s lives and they are exposed to other cultures, which can influence their own.
Chapter 11, by East and Luger, focuses on youth culture and tourism development in the Austrian mountains. East and Luger share interesting ideas about how young people react and adjust their behavior towards tourists. They report that youth involved in family business tourism tend to be more respectful of tourists. Youth in rural mountain areas were found to be interested in urban experiences.
Voase concludes these last four cases with three basic themes. The first context is where the user experience is placed or produced. This theme brings to mind MacCannell’s (1976) concept of prior and posterior facts. The front stage is the presentation of the destination to the visitors, while the back stage is the actual or true location of the destination. The second theme is that trade and commerce are not synonymous terms. The third theme is that our surroundings are often used to influence people. Voase explains how the landscape of sports has changed and caused viewers to change.
Overall, this book is useful for practitioners and academics because it provides in-depth studies provided by people who have close connections to the tourism industry, thus providing an insider’s opinion. Voase, as a tourism marketing expert and academic, effectively integrates studies focusing on Western European tourism and introduces concepts that change the ‘old’ tourism principles into ‘new’ ones. His introductions to each collection of cases (ie, economic, political and socio-cultural) are logical. Voase, however, does not discuss the introduction of the Euro currency in January 2002. This is an important change in the economic structure of all EU member states and their social and cultural development. The connection of the EU countries through the use of a common currency can cause a great public sentiment, which can affect tourism through the culture, social, political and economic aspects of the EU member states.
Finally, Voase’s last piece is insightful. His conclusions identify the human, environmental and consumer trends that will influence tourism in Western Europe in the 21st century. He concludes that an aging population, global warming, and active and passive consumer segments are factors in the ‘new’ tourism. All three approaches may influence future research in the field of tourism development and marketing. Both academics and practitioners should be aware of these conditions. Voase as a specialist and academic makes a significant contribution to these thematic studies and the identification of key themes and trends in tourism in Western Europe.
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