How Much Formula Should A 6 Month Old Have The History of Water Ski Racing in Britain

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The History of Water Ski Racing in Britain

1940s

Kwiminyaka eliqela phambi kwemfazwe, umdyarho we-aquaplane wawuqhutywa minyaka le ukusuka kwisiqithi sase-Avalon ukuya eHermosa Beach, eCalifornia. Yayilugqatso kunye novavanyo lonyamezelo kubo bobabini indoda kunye nesikhephe kwaye ngokuqhelekileyo ngaphantsi kwe-20% yebala eliye lakwazi ukugqiba. Intsalela iye yaphuma ngenxa yeengxaki zesikhephe okanye ngenxa yokuba i-aqua planer ayikwazanga ukubambelela. Umdyarho wokugqibela phambi kwemfazwe, ngoJuni 20 1941, waphunyelelwa nguBob Brown, otsalwa nguDon Berry, ngexesha le-1 hr 51 min.

Ngo-1947, i-Long Beach Boat kunye ne-Ski Club yasekwa kwaye ngokukhawuleza yathatha inkxaso-mali yogqatso, yayithiya igama elithi “Grand National Water Ski Race”. Ngowe-1949 ukhuphiswano lwaba luhambo lokuya nokubuya, luqalela eHermosa Beach pier, abatyibilizi babaleka ukuya kwi-isthmus, bajikeleza isikhephe esijikajikayo baza babuyela bengayekanga kwi-pier. Umtyibilizi wayengafaneleki ukuba nangaliphi na ixesha bachukumise isikhephe okanye nabani na osesikhepheni. U-Ed Stanley waseOrange uphumelele olugqatso lokuqala lokuya nokubuya ngexesha le-I hr 41 min.

Ngokuqinisekileyo, esi siganeko saziwa kakhulu kule mihla njengeCatalina, kwaye nje irekhodi, u-Chuck Steams waqala ukuphumelela umcimbi eneminyaka eyi-16 kwaye waqhubeka ewuphumelela ngokumangalisayo izihlandlo ezilishumi elinanye kule minyaka imbalwa izayo.

1950s

Ngoku yayilixesha lokuba i-Aussies iseke isiqephu sembali kwi-ski racing kwaye kwi-1950, i-Bridge-to-Bridge Water Ski Race yasungulwa. Ikhosi yeemayile ezingama-68 kuMlambo i-NSW Hawkesbury ngoku lolona gqatso lubalulekileyo ehlabathini.

1960s

Ngo-1966, iBritane yenza inyathelo lokubandakanyeka kumdlalo wokutyibilika emanzini kwaye intlanganiso yabanjwa eMandeville Hotel eLondon, apho iiklabhu ze-30 zazimelwe kwaye ikomitana yoMdyarho ye-BWSF yasekwa. Intshatsheli yaseCalifornia uChuck Steams wayeseLondon ngelo xesha kwaye wabonelela ngekopi yencwadi yomthetho yomdyarho yaseCalifornia, eyathi yaseka isiseko semithetho yomdyarho yaseBritane.

U-Alan Taylor ukhumbula; “Besisazi ukuba umdyarho wenzeke eBelgium kwiminyaka emithathu okanye emine ngaphambili, eScheldt kwindawo ebizwa ngokuba yiRupelmonde. Ngomnyaka olandelayo, abantu abambalwa baseWhitstable Club baya eBelgium baza bajonga lo mdyarho kwaye samema umntu waseBelgium. iqela eliza kukhuphisana kugqatso lokuqala olusemthethweni lokunqumla isitishi”.

NgoMeyi, 29 1967, iWhitstable kunye neVarne Club iiklabhu zamanzi zokutyibiliza emanzini ziququzelele umdyarho wokuqala wokutyibiliza wamanzi onqamlezayo kwaye akukho ngaphantsi kwamaqela angama-56, kubandakanywa elinye laseBelgium, bathatha inxaxheba kumgama oziikhilomitha ezingama-42 ukusuka eGreatstone, eKent, ukuya kwitrawler. isikhephe esimakishayo, esimiswe iimayile ezintathu ukusuka eCap Griz Nez nasemva.

Izikhephe zazivunyelwa ukuba zithabathe abantu abathathu okanye abane ukuze batyibilize kudedelana. I-skis yayizii-skis eziqhelekileyo eziqhelekileyo ze-slalom zesantya esijikeleze i-30 mph, kunye nezibini, kwaye umgca wokutyibilika kufuneka ube phakathi kwe-75 ft kunye ne-100 ft ubude. Amaqela nawo aye avunyelwa ukuba adlale ngokutyibiliza umtyibilizi ngaphezu kwesinye kwiqela ngalinye.

Iindaba ngokukhawuleza zavuza ukuba i-skier 47 ibhalisiwe, njengoko uMnu. AAJohnson wayengenguye u-Earl we-Snowdon, umxhasi we-BWSF, ezama ukugcina isazisi sakhe kwi-Press. Umphumo waba kukupapashwa kweendaba ezichukumisayo ngesi siganeko.

Bangaphezu kwama-20 kwabangama-56 abangenele ugqatso abangaphumelelanga ukulugqiba ugqatso ngenxa yesaqhwithi, esithe sabetha amaza aphakamileyo kangangeemitha ezi-6. Abaphumeleleyo bebengamalungu eChasewater Power Boat Club, kwaye bayigqiba ikhosi kwi-3 hr 15 min. Iqela le-Snowdon lafika kwindawo yesine kwi-4 hr 10 min kwaye enye i-skier kumncintiswano yayinguBill Rixon oneminyaka eyi-14. Ukuthatha indawo yesi-3 xa iyonke, esi yayisisiqalo nje somntu owayeza kuba ngomnye wamabali aseBritane kumdyarho wokutyibiliza emanzini.

Ngo-1968 iKomiti yoMdyarho ye-BWSF yaququzelela uthotho lokuqala lobuNtshatsheli baseBritane, oluqhutywa e-Chasewater, eGreatsone, eHunstanton, eHartlepool, ePenarth nakuMlambo iMedway. UJohn Boardman weklabhu yaseVarne waba yintshatsheli yokuqala yothotho.

Ngo-1969, uthotho lweNtshatsheli yaseBritane lonyuswa lwaya kutsho kumdyarho osibhozo kwaye lwaphunyelelwa nguBrendan Bowles weklabhu yasePenarth. Kwakulo nyaka apho ubuNtshatsheli boMdyarho waManzi waseYurophu wasekwayo kwaye imidyarho yabanjwa eHolland, eBelgium naseBritani. UBill Rixon waba yiNtshatsheli yokuqala yoMdyarho waManzi waseYurophu waManzi.

1970s

U-Rixon waqala ukwenza uphawu lwakhe kumdyarho waseYurophu ngeminyaka yee-70s kunye neembasa zegolide ezingekho ngaphantsi kwesithandathu kubuNtshatsheli baseYurophu phakathi kwabaninzi baseBritani nabo. UBill uthe, “kusenokwenzeka ukuba kukho nezinye izihloko ezimbini zaseYurophu ezingachazwanga”. Ngo-1974/5 uchithe ixesha elininzi e-Italy etyibiliza ekhephini iMotes, kwaye watyelela eMzantsi Afrika izihlandlo ezimbalwa ebengamkelekanga waze waphinda waya kugqatso lomdyarho eCalifornia.

Amanye amagama afana noDavid Hutchinson, uGuy Gooding, uDavid Martin, uRobin Mainwaring, uCliff Featherstone, u-Alan Hargreaves, uTony Cox, uGary Brooks kunye noColin Harris babesasazeke kuyo yonke i-70s xa umdyarho wokutyibilika waseBritane weF1 wawusomelele njengakuqala.

Amanye amagama amabini yayingoobhuti uSteven noAndy Coe. USteven waphumelela uBuntshatsheli baseBritane ngo-1978 nango-1979 waza uAndy walandela ngo-1980 kunye noTom Lumley ejonge kuzo zonke ezi zithathu ziphumeleleyo. Abafazi abaphezulu baseBritane baquka uLiz Hobbs, uSue de Donker kunye noKim Gooding.

ULiz waqalisa ukutyibiliza ekhephini xa wayeneminyaka esi-9 ubudala, yaye eneminyaka eli-15 ubudala, wayesele etyibilike etyibilikeni kugqatso lwakhe lokuqala kwiMedway ngowe-1975. Kwangalo nyaka, wophula iirekhodi zesantya zabasetyhini baseBritane kunye neYurophu ngasemva kwephenyane elinamandla leCigarette elibizwa, “Ndiyayithanda nam”.

Ngexesha le-70’s, abatyibilizi etyibilizini abambalwa baseBritane, kuqukwa neCoes, bandwendwela iOstreliya baza bafumanisa indlela entsha yokutyibiliza ekhephini ebizwa ngokuba, ‘ukusonga’. UTerry Bennett waseSydney wayeligama emva kokusonga kwaye wafumanisa ubuchule ngengozi, xa wayezama ukulula umqolo wakhe, emva kokufumana ingozi. Ke kunye noFred Williams womdyarho wokutyibiliza, kunye nobutyebi bamava ase-Aussie, aba batyibilizi baseBritane basazisa ngendlela sonke ngoku sityibiliza – esongayo.

Ekunye noRay Berriman no-Alan Taylor, abanye abafana no-Arthur Dawe, uPeter Felix, uTed Rawlings, uWally Neale noJohn Hoiles babengabaququzeleli bokuqala bomdyarho waseBritani. UJohn Hoiles uye waba nguMongameli waseYurophu kunye neHlabathi we-IWSF, kwaye waba negalelo elikhulu kumdlalo.

Inguquko kugqatso lokutyibilika emanzini lwehlabathi lwabakho ngoSeptemba 9, 1979, xa kwabanjwa ukhuphiswano lokuqala lwehlabathi oluxhaswa nguSperry Univac, ngemidyarho eWhitstable, eAllhallows naseWelsh Harp. URay Berriman waseBritani uye wakhokela ikomiti eququzelelayo.

Esi siganeko sasingowokuqala ukuhlanganisa amaqela asemthethweni asemthethweni avela kwihlabathi lonke, kwaye nangona u-Wayne Ritchie wase-Australia kunye noBronwyn Wing bahlutha igolide, uKim Gooding waseBrithani wathatha i-2nd kwabasetyhini, uBill Rixon 2nd kumadoda kunye noSteven Coe 3rd. Iqela laseBhritane laseka iBritane ngokucacileyo njengomkhosi oza kubalwa nawo kwinqanaba lomdyarho wokutyibiliza emanzini.

1980s

Njengoko u-Rixon wayesondela esiphelweni somdyarho wakhe ongazange ubonwe ngaphambili, yayilixesha lokuba amanye amagama amatsha akhwele eqongeni kwaye onwabele ukugqama. U-Liz Hobbs kunye noSteve Moore babengamagama amabini amakhulu ekuqaleni kweminyaka yama-80 kwaye bobabini baye baba ziintshatsheli zehlabathi kwaye bawongwa nge-MBE. Enyanisweni uLiz waphumelela iwonga lentshatsheli yehlabathi ngo-1981 nango-1984, kwaye waphumelela iwonga lobuntshatsheli baseYurophu ubuncinane izihlandlo ezine.

Kodwa ubomi kwi-80s abuzange bube bumnandi kuLiz, nangona impumelelo yakhe emangalisayo, kuba ePenarth ngo-1984, wawa waza waphuka intamo. Ukwaphuke isimbo sakhe kwiindawo ezintathu, iimbambo ezintandathu, enye yazo yagqobhoza umphunga. Ngaphezu koko, intliziyo kaLiz yema.

Okumangalisayo kukuba, uLiz wabuyela kwi-ski kunyaka olandelayo waza wabuyela kumdlalo wakhe wokuphumelela ngo-1986. Kamva kwi-80s watyunjwa kwiwonga lezemidlalo lomntu kwaye waphumelela ibhaso lababhali bezemidlalo bonyaka. Emva kokukhwela kwinqanaba likawonke-wonke ngoncedo lomsasazi kwiminyaka embalwa edlulileyo, uLiz uye wabamba uthotho lwakhe lweTV kunye neYorkshire Television ebizwa ngokuba yi “Hobbs Choice”, kwaye ukusukela ngoko, uye waba ngomnye wabona bantu baziwayo bamanzi e-waterkier. ihlabathi.

USteve Moore waqala ukubaleka ngo-1980. Wayengumfana owawayo, kodwa wavuka, waphinda wawa kodwa wayesoloko ephakama. Ekugqibeleni wayeka ukuwa kwaye wayengumatshini omangalisayo phezu kwamanzi. Ngo-1983 waye wazama irekhodi lesantya e-Windermere emva kwe-Alf Bullen’s F1 catamaran, kodwa wehla kwi-115mph.

UMoore uphumelele izihloko zaseYurophu ezingaphantsi kwesihlanu, izihloko ezihlanu zaseBritani kunye neentshatsheli zehlabathi zika-1988 eSydney, eOstreliya. Kwakhona waphumelela iNdebe yeHlabathi ngo-1986. Oku kuquka iCatalina, iGiro del Lario kunye neBotany Bay Classic yase-Australia. Uphumelele zontathu ngonyaka omnye, kwaye waba ngowokuqala umtyibilizi waseBritane ukuphumelela uCatalina ngokuthe ngqo.

Ukukhwela izithende zikaMoore ekupheleni kweminyaka yama-80s yayingumfana oselula waseLondon owatsiba kugqatso lwakhe lokuqala ngo-1977. Igama lakhe yayinguDarren Kirkland kwaye xa eneminyaka eli-18 ubudala, iKirkland yaqala ukumela iBritane kukhuphiswano lwehlabathi eSpain, ngo-1985 sele eza kungenela umsitho wakhe wesibhozo wobuntshatsheli behlabathi ngo-2001.

NgeeCoes, uRixon, uCliff Featherstone, uPaul Llewellyn, uGary Brooks, uTony Cox nabanye besilwela uloyiso kuyo yonke le minyaka ilishumi, ii-80s zidlale umdyarho omangalisayo kulo lonke elaseBritani. U-Nicky Carpenter kunye noLisa Coupland nabo babe ngamagama aphumeleleyo kwi-80s.

1990s

Njengoko i-80s ephumelelayo yayisiya iphela, ukuhla koqoqosho kwabona amanani eebaleka ehla. EYurophu, eOstreliya nase-USA, ipateni efanayo yenzeka, kodwa oku akuzange kuthintele ezemidlalo ekubeni zikhuphisane ngakumbi ngokwezibophelelo ezinikwe ukuphumelela ukugqama.

I-Kirkland iqhubekile yaphumelela isabelo sayo esifanelekileyo kwaye sele ilawula umdyarho waseBritane ukusukela ngeminyaka yoo-90s. Ukubonisa ukuzingisa edume ngako, iKirkland iye yaqokelela izihloko ezilishumi zeBhritane, izihloko ezintlanu zaseYurophu kwaye yaba ngumtyibilizi ohlonitshwayo kwihlabathi liphela. Ngaphezulu koko, iKirkland iphumelele iCatalina ngo-1994, umdyarho weDayimani onzima eBelgium, umona kathandathu kunye neGiro del Lario yase-Italiya kabini.

Kodwa ubucwebe kwisithsaba buye bambaleka kule minyaka ili-16 idlulileyo. Iwonga lehlabathi sele likufutshane kwaye okwangoku, ukusuka kwindoda esondele kakhulu ekuphumeleleni ngaphezulu kwesihlandlo esinye. Ngo-1995, uStefano Gregorio wase-Italiya wafumana iwonga e-Belgium, kanye njengokuba iKirkland yayicinga ukuba iwonga ligqityiwe. Kwi-1997 wathatha i-3 e-Australia kwaye kwi-1999 wathatha i-2nd eSpain. Kulo nyaka uzakuzama kwakhona, ukuphumelela impumelelo enye ayifuna kakhulu.

NgoJanuwari 1997, iKirkland yawongwa ngeBWSF General Lascelles Trophy ngokuqaphela impumelelo yakhe enkulu kumdlalo wokutyibiliza emanzini. Yaye kukhuphiswano lwehlabathi lowe-1999, owafumana imbasa yegolide uStephen Robertson waseOstreliya wanikela imbeko kuwonke wonke kwiKirkland emva kokufumana isithsaba sakhe.

Kwiminyaka yokuqala yama-90 wabona uRachel Casson edlala indima ebalaseleyo kukhuphiswano lwehlabathi ngowe-1991 eDarwin, eOstreliya. Kufutshane kakhulu ekuphumeleleni omnye wemijikelo, uRakeli wawa ngaphezulu kwe-100mph kwaye wonzakele ngendlela eyoyikekayo. Ezimisele ukuphumelela kwinqanaba lehlabathi, uRachel waba ngumtyibilizi ophambili wabasetyhini eBritane, kodwa wayephethwe kukwenzakala kukaDarwin ekuhambeni kweminyaka. UGilly Clements wayekwangumbangi oqinileyo kwiminyaka yee-80s kunye neye-90s, emele iBritane izihlandlo ezininzi.

2000s

Ukutyhubela iminyaka iBritane yomelele kakhulu eYurophu, iphumelele izihloko ezininzi kuzo zonke iindidi, kubandakanya nendebe yeqela elinqwenelwa kakhulu ubuncinci amaxesha amane. Imisebenzi emihle yabaninzi kodwa ngokuphawulekayo kudidi lwabasetyhini nguLiz Hobbs, uNicky Carpenter, uLisa Coupland, uRachel Casson, uGilli Clements. Kutshanje uKim Lumley ubhale igama lakhe kwindebe yentshatsheli yaseBritane izihlandlo ezithathu. UPaula Newland, ophuma kwiklabhu yasePenarth, naye sele ekhona kwaye wafumana indawo yesi-6 kukhuphiswano lwehlabathi eSpain ngo-1999.

UDarren Kirkland usalawula kudidi lwamadoda e-Bhritane kodwa abafana noKarl Brooks kunye noDanny Evans bavala ngokuthe ngcembe kwi-34 leminyaka ubudala. Uya kuyigcina ixesha elingakanani indawo yakhe phezulu kumdyarho waseBritane? – ixesha kuphela liya kuxela.

Kwicala elisemthethweni lezinto, uRay Berriman waseBritani, owaba negalelo kubuntshatsheli behlabathi bokuqala eBritani emva phayaa ngo-1979, nguMgwebi oyiNtloko kukhuphiswano lwehlabathi luka-2001 eLas Vegas kulo nyaka.

Akukwazeki ukukhankanya bonke abo baye badlala indima kwimbali yaseBritane yomdyarho wokutyibiliza emanzini apha. Maninzi amagama angachazwanga. Kodwa eli nqaku ngethemba likunike umbono wenqanaba eliphezulu lomdyarho wokutyibiliza wamanzi kwaye udlulile.

Lilonke, iBritane isaqhubeka nokudlala indima enkulu kumdyarho we-ski kwihlabathi. Ngokungathandabuzekiyo iya kuqhubeka isenza njalo kule minyaka izayo.

Ibhalwe ngo-2001 nguRobbie Llewellyn

Ngombulelo ku: Aubrey Sheena, Alan Taylor, Darren Kirkland, Steve Moore (MBE), uMike Waterman, uMartin Brooks, uTom Lumley, uLiz Hobbs (MBE) kunye neGuinness Book of Waterskiing.

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