How Much Formula Should A Six Month Old Drink Patents, Trademarks, Copyrights, Trade Secrets Protect Your Invention!

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Amanani elungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza akhutshwa ngokulandelelanayo, kuqalwa ngenani elinye. Inombolo yelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza yanikezelwa kuSamuel Hopkins ngoJulayi 31,1790. Kwathatha iminyaka engama-75 ukuba i-Ofisi yase-United States yePatent kunye ne-Trademark Office (USPTO) ikhuphe inombolo ye-patent eyi-1,000,000. Inombolo yelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza 7,000,000 yakhutshwa ngoFebruwari 14, 2006. Kwathatha iminyaka esixhenxe kuphela ukuba i-USPTO isuke ekunikezelweni kwenombolo yelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza 6,000,000 ukuya kwi-7,000,000.

Ithetha ntoni le nto? Ngokulula, kukho ubuchule obuninzi ngoku nangaliphi na ixesha kwimbali. Umdala wabona ukuba “akukho nto intsha” ayilunganga ngokupheleleyo. Akuzange kubekho abantu abaninzi kangaka kunye namaqumrhu adala inoveli, iimveliso ezizodwa, itekhnoloji kunye neenkonzo, kwaye iqhutywa ukuthengisa ezi ziqalo. Amalungelo awodwa omenzi wechiza noosomashishini abazama ukuthengisa iimveliso zabo kubonisa ukuba kukho ukhuphiswano olungakumbi lokufakwa ngempumelelo.

Kubalulekile ukuba oosomashishini bakhusele izinto abaziqambileyo. Olu luhlobo lwe-inshurensi. Ukuzama ukuthengisa into eyilwayo ngaphandle kokugubungela umsebenzi ngekhaka lelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza, uphawu lokuthengisa, ilungelo lokushicilela okanye ukukhuselwa kwemfihlo yorhwebo kubonisa indlela engenamsebenzi engayi kuphumelela. Abatyali-zimali, abanini bamaphepha-mvume, kunye nabatyali-zimali bafuna ukhuseleko olufumanekayo ezi mveliso zepropathi enomgangatho ophezulu wokuqonda. Nokuba usomashishini uza kuzithengisa ngokwakhe, ukhuseleko lubalulekile ukuze kuthintelwe ukhuphiswano.

Usokhemesti e-Atlanta, ekuqaleni kwenkulungwane yama-20, wenza ifomula yesiraphu awayithengisa kumthombo wesoda kwikhemesti yakhe. UJohn Pemberton waxuba isiraphu namanzi esoda kwaye wathengisa iziselo zeconcoction njengesiselo esisempilweni sokunyanga iintlungu kunye neentlungu. UMnu Pemberton wayedale iCoca-Cola. Akazange acinge ukuba iCoke iya kuba yimveliso yentuthuzelo yamazwe ngamazwe, isiselo esihlwahlwazayo. Eyona nto ilumkileyo uJohn Pemberton wakha wayenza, ngaphandle kokuqulunqa iCoca-Cola, yayikukuphatha ifomula eyimfihlo yesiraphu njengeMfihlo yoRhwebo. Kuze kube namhlanje, iNkampani ye-Coca-Cola Bottling ikhusela ngentshiseko izithako kunye nekhemistri echaphazelekayo ekuveliseni isiraphu yesiseko eyona nto isisiseko seCoca-Cola.

IBig Boy Restaurants ikhusela iresiphi yesosi yetartar ehamba kwiisandwich zabo, kwaye abathengi abaninzi bathenga ngebhotile kwaye bagoduke. AbakwaMcDonalds bayikhusela ngokungqongqo inkqubo yabo yokutyela ukuze banqumle, bapheke kwaye balungise iifries zabo zaseFransi. UWilliam Wrigley wayeyindoda ekrelekrele ekugcineni imfihlo ubuchule bakhe bokuhambisa itshungama enencasa enamandla, ehlala ixesha elide.

IiMfihlo zoRhwebo azikwazi kukhusela ukhuseleko lwelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza. Ubutsha beMfihlo yoRhwebo kukudityaniswa, kwikhemistri okanye ubalo-maxesha olusetyenziselwa ukuhambisa imveliso egqityiweyo. Ukuba unayo iresiphi enjalo uya kufuna ukugcina olu lwazi lukufutshane kakhulu, njengoko lunokuthanda kakhulu. Ukuba uluntu luyayazi ifomula yeCoca-Cola, ngokuqinisekileyo bekuya kubakho abathengi abaninzi abanomdla wokudibanisa isiselo sabo ekhaya. UCoke akanakuyithanda loo nto!

Ukuba imveliso yakho inamandla kunye nemfuneko yokuba ibe yiMfihlo yoRhwebo uya kufuna ukulandela amanyathelo asisiseko aliqela. Okokuqala, bhala phantsi zonke iziganeko ezinxulumene nokuphuhliswa kwefomula. Gcina i-logbook enedatha, imihla kunye neenkcukacha zomsebenzi wakho. Njengoko ugqibezela umsebenzi wakho wophuhliso khumbula onke amanyathelo ayimfuneko ekuziseni imveliso egqityiweyo onqwenela ukuyigcina iyimfihlo kwiresiphi okanye kuxwebhu lwesishwankathelo. Emva koko gcina kwindawo ekhuseleke kakhulu (ibhokisi yediphozithi yokhuseleko, okanye ekhuselekileyo) yonke imveliso yomsebenzi kunye neresiphi okanye ifomula.

IMfihlo yoRhwebo ifumana ixabiso le-asethi engakholelekiyo xa imveliso yakho iba yimpumelelo yemarike. Ukuthengisa ishishini elakhiwe malunga neMfihlo yoRhwebo ekhuselwe ngokupheleleyo kwandisa ixabiso lenkampani. Coca-Cola, Betty Crocker, Duncan Hines, Oil of Olay, Schlitz, Dom Perignon, Ben noJerry kunye no-Estee Lauder’s Youth Dew yimizekelo embalwa yeempawu ezidumileyo ezakhiwe malunga neMfihlo yoRhwebo.

Uphawu loRhwebo lubalulekile ekuphuhliseni ulwazi lophawu lwemveliso. Sebenzisa iGqwetha lePatent xa usiya kwindawo ekhethekileyo yokufuna ukhuseleko lophawu. Andizange ndimbone usomashishini eqhuba ngempumelelo imisebenzi entsonkothileyo ye-USPTO. NDIYE ndazibona iinzame ezininzi zokusingatha le nkqubo, zonke ziphumela ekubeni lusilele ngokupheleleyo.

Umxholo woPhawu unokubandakanya i-ayikhoni elungiselelweyo, echazayo, igama lebhrendi elinesitayile kunye nengxelo yokuthengisa. I-Nike isebenzisa i-slash edumileyo (umfanekiso) igama leNkampani (ifonti eyaziwayo enesitayile) kunye “Yenza nje!” (isiteyitimenti sophawu). Bandakanya zonke izinto uluntu oluya kuziqaphela kwisicelo sakho sophawu lwentengiso.

Jonga ngeenxa zonke kwiinkampani zasekhaya, zengingqi, zelizwe kunye nezamazwe ngamazwe kunye neempawu ozibona yonke imihla. I-Pat’s Cheese Steaks e-Philadelphia lishishini lendawo eliye lafumana udumo olukhulu kunye nokuqondwa kwe-brand kwaye ikhusela i-brand yabo ngophawu lokuthengisa. Yindawo yokundwendwela ePhilly. I-Chanel, i-brand ye-haute couture yase-French, ihlonitshwa kumazwe ngamazwe kwaye i-“C” yakudala ehombisa yonke iyunithi yemveliso ye-Chanel yenye yezona mpawu zophawu lwaziwayo kwihlabathi. Ngokwenene uNolen, inkonzo yesizwe yokususa izinambuzane, uphawu zorhwebo ngeendlebe zempuku ezibonwayo kwisibambiso ngasinye sentengiso, intengiso kunye nesithuthi senkonzo esisetyenziswa yiNkampani.

Ukuba noPhawu loRhwebo kunika uxanduva emapoliseni kwaye lukhusele uphawu olunikiweyo. Ukubandakanywa kwe-(TM) kwiyunithi nganye yemveliso kubalulekile. Kwakhona, dibana negqwetha. Iimpawu zokuthengisa zinokuthi zingabikho kwaye zilahleke.

Amalungelo okushicilela asetyenziswa ukukhusela ipropathi enomgangatho ophezulu wokuqonda. Umxholo bhanyabhanya, imibongo, umculo, iincwadi kunye nemidlalo yeqonga inelungelo lobunikazi. Sisebenze kunye nabathengi kwiqela levidiyo kunye nemidlalo yebhodi. Sisoloko sinamalungelo okukopisha imithetho kunye/okanye iimpawu zokudlala zomdlalo.

Kutshanje, uDan Brown, umbhali wencwadi ephumelele kakhulu ethi “Ikhowudi yeDa Vinci”, wayefanelekele ukukopa ngababhali baseBritane bencwadi malunga nokukhangela kweGrail eNgcwele. Ukukhangela kweGrail eNgcwele kungundoqo kwisicwangciso se “Da Vinci Code”. Kukho iishelufu zethala leencwadi ezigcweleyo ezinikezelwe kukhangelo lweGrail eNgcwele engaqondakaliyo. Nangona kunjalo, ngexesha lokukhutshwa komboniso bhanyabhanya we “Da Vinci Code” kwaqaliswa isenzo somthetho esibandakanya le propayte yengqondo. UBrown kunye nomshicileli wakhe bawakhusele ngamandla amalungelo abo phantsi kokhuseleko lwabo lweCopyright. Baphumelele ubungqina obugcweleyo obuvela enkundleni.

Abavelisi beempawu zomxholo wengqondo (ii-studio ze-movie, iileyibhile zokurekhoda, abashicileli beencwadi) bayathandabuza kakhulu ukwamkela iziphakamiso ezingacelwanga zokuhlaziywa. “Ikhowudi yeDa Vinci” sisizathu. Amanyathelo asemthethweni axhaphakile kwindawo yepropathi enomgangatho ophezulu wokuqonda. Sonke sikhumbula izinto esizibonileyo, esazivayo okanye esaziva sisuka kude, kodwa zimfiliba. Ukuphindaphinda ukwahluka kwaloo mava kunokufumana indlela eya kwiphepha elibhaliweyo. Voila, ngaba le nto ibhalwe phantsi?

UMatel kunye noHasbro abayi kuphonononga NAKUPHI na ukuhanjiswa kwezinto zokudlala ngaphandle. Ngaba ayisiyonto nje into yokuba khange kubekho intshayelelo yento yokudlala kwiminyaka ukusuka kuHasbro okanye kuMattel? Le yenye yezinto eziphuma ngelishwa zoluntu oluxabanayo, imida ebekwe kwizinto ezintsha ezifunekayo. Khusela ipropathi yakho yobukrelekrele ngeCopyright.

Ndicebisa kubathengi bam, phambi kokuchitha idime kwigqwetha lelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza, ukuba benze ukukhangela okukhawulezileyo kwiwebhusayithi ye-USPTO.Gov ngokubonelela ngawo onke amagama abalulekileyo acacileyo asebenzayo ekuyilweni kwabo. Ukuba inani leemveliso ezinelungelo elilodwa lomenzi ziye zavela, kwaye zinendawo-kwimbono yazo, loo nto isenokungabi ngumgqatswa wokufayilisha. Ukuba ibala libonakala livulekile kwaye licocekile, ngoko ke ndicebisa ukuqesha igqwetha lelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza ukuba liqhube uphando oluchwepheshile, olucokisekileyo. Ukukhangela nzulu kuyakuqinisekisa amandla okufumana ngempumelelo ukhuseleko lwelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza.

Amalungelo awodwa omenzi wechiza sesona sitayela sikhethwayo sokukhusela uninzi lwabaqambi noosomashishini. Amalungelo awodwa omenzi wechiza (izinto eziluncedo) ziiarhente ezinamandla kakhulu zokuzikhusela kumarhamncwa, amasela kunye namagcisa okuwisa. Ayikuko ukuba ligqwetha, kodwa, kwakhona, sebenzisa iinkonzo zegqwetha lelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza. Ndihlala ndimangaliswe kwaye ndonwabile ukuba bangaphi abantu abacinga ukuba banokubhala ngempumelelo, babonelele ngemifanekiso ecacileyo ye-3-D ye-CAD, ifayile, ukuphatha izichaso ze-USPTO kunye nokuhambisa i-patent nge-labyrinth ye-Federal Government bureaucracy. Yiya kuMfanekiso! Bachitha ixesha kunye nemali, kwaye badla ngokuchasa naliphi na ithuba lokufumana ipatent efakwe kwakhona ngempumelelo ukufumana inombolo yelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza.

Ukufakwa kwePatent okwethutyana yileta ebekwe kwifayile kunye ne-USPTO. Ukufakela okwethutyana kucebisa i-USPTO yenkcazo yemveliso ozama ukuyiphuhlisa. Ileta inomjikelo wobomi bonyaka omnye kwaye kufuneka yandiswe ngefayile yelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza (Uncedo okanye uYilo) okanye imveliso ishiywe ngonaphakade.

Sisebenzisa iPatent yeThutyana njengendlela esemthethweni yokuchaza ukuba imveliso ekwinqanaba lophuhliso lokuqala yiPatent Pending. Oku kufakwa kwakhona akubizi kakhulu xa kuthelekiswa noyilo okanye usetyenziso lwepatent. Ukufakela iPatent okwethutyana kukwavumela usomashishini ukuba abe nexesha lonyaka omnye lokuvavanya kunye nokulinganisa impendulo yemarike kuyilo. Ukuba ukusabela kukwamkelekile, oko komeleza imfuneko yokuqhubeka nokunikela nge-asethi kuphuhliso oluqhubekayo lweli thuba.

IPatent yoYilo igubungela ngokulula iimpawu zobugcisa eziphawulwe kwisicelo. Olu lolona hlobo lubuthathaka lokhuselo lwelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza. Umntu okhuphisana naye kufuneka atshintshe kuphela into yoyilo, into yokuthambisa okanye ukongeza igcisa elahlukileyo ukuze loyise iPatent yoYilo. Nangona kunjalo, kwiimveliso ezinesakhono sokwenyani sorhwebo, kodwa zingenakoyisa ngaphambili, ubugcisa bemveliso esele bukhona ukufumana iPatent eSebenzayo, iPatent yoYilo ibonelela ngenzuzo enye enokubakho ebalulekileyo: ukhetho lokugcina imveliso inqunyanyisiwe kwimo eqhubekayo yePatent.

Senze oku kumatyeli aliqela. Isilungiso esilula kwifayile yokuqala sithetha ukuba i-bureaucrat kwi-USPTO kufuneka ifumane ifayile, iyichole, ifake iinkcukacha zokufayilisha ezilungisiweyo kwaye iphinde ifake ifayile. Ngenxa yoko ukufakwa kwefayile kuya ngasemva emgceni kwaye sifumana iinyanga ezingakumbi zokukhuselwa kwePatent.

Kutheni utyhubela konke oku? Xa imveliso ikwimo yePatent elindileyo inokhuseleko lokugqibela. Xa inombolo yelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza ikhutshiwe iwotshi iqalisa ukuphawula kubomi obusebenzayo bokhuselo kwaye iinkcukacha zobutsha bemveliso enelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza ziye zibe lulwazi loluntu. Imveliso yakho icacile. Inokuba lula ngokumangalisayo kumzobi ongaphantsi kobuchwephesha ukuba enze ubunjineli obujikeleze izinto ozenzileyo kunye neenzuzo ezizodwa.

Ngokugcina imveliso kwiPatent elindileyo limbo sigcina iimpawu zisithelwe kulo naluphi na ulwazi loluntu. Oku kudla ngokukhokelela kwinzuzo yokuqala yentengiso kwaye ukhuphiswano luqonda kuphela ukuba kukho iPatent elindileyo. Ixesha elongeziweyo elifunyanwa yimveliso, ukwakha kunye nokwandisa intengiso yokuthengisa, kunye nokuqalisa inkqubo yokuphawula kubaluleke kakhulu kunemirhumo esemthethweni efunekayo ukugcina ukongeza i-adenda yokuqala kwifayile yoYilo. Ufuna ukuba ngowokuqala ukuthengisa, kwaye ube nexesha elininzi kangangoko kunokwenzeka lokuma wedwa kwimarike.

I-Utility Patent ixabiseke ngokugqithisileyo, njengekhaka elikhuselayo kukhuphiswano nanjenge-asethi yeshishini. Ukuveliswa okufumana inombolo yePatent yoMsebenzi kwi-USPTO kunokuba nomdla kubanikazi belayisensi, amahlakani, abatyali-mali kunye ne-venture capital. Uninzi lweemveliso ezinamalungelo awodwa omenzi wechiza (Utility), nangona kunjalo, ungaze wenze ukuthengisa. Sihlala sibona izinto ezintsha ezivelisiweyo, kwaye ngoko ke i-patent inokwenzeka, kodwa hayi urhwebo, okanye efunekayo, okanye eyinzuzo. Sonke siyazi inzululwazi ephambeneyo okanye ezimbini, ezinoyilo olungapheliyo, ukuveliswa kunye namalungelo awodwa abenzi, akukho nanye eya kuba yimpumelelo yemarike.

I-Utility Patent ikhusela iimpawu zenoveli kunye nezibonelelo ezichazwa sisicelo ngokweenkcukacha ezinkulu. Igqwetha lelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza liya kubalisa imiba eyodwa yoyilo lwakho. Baza kuphinda bakhankanye amanye amalungelo awodwa abenzi kufutshane nendawo yakho kodwa ngocoselelo uqaphele umahluko okhoyo kwimveliso yakho. Ukongeza, inzame enkulu iya kunikezelwa ekudaleni ubugcisa be-3-D obuNcedayo kwiKhompyutha yoYilo olubonisa imveliso yakho ukusuka kuyo yonke i-engile enokwenzeka kwaye ibonise umzobo okhethekileyo wemveliso yakho.

Ukugcwaliswa kwePatent ye-Utility ayifane ihambe nge-USPTO ngaphandle kokucelwa umngeni. Igqwetha lelungelo elilodwa lomenzi wechiza lihlala lilindele ubuthathaka ekufakweni kwefayile kwaye lineempendulo ezilungele ukujongana neenkxalabo kunye nemibuzo yabavavanyi. Oku kulawula kwakhona ifayile kwi-bureaucracy e-USPTO. Ndixelela abaxumi bam ukuba banokulindela ukuya kuthi ga kwiinyanga ezili-18 zokulinda ngaphambi kokuba bafumane isaziso sesigqibo se-USPTO. Nangona kunjalo, kwiifayile ezininzi ezintsonkothileyo, ndiyibonile inkqubo ithatha ukuya kutsho kwiminyaka emithandathu.

Ndikholelwe, kuwufanele umsebenzi, ukulinda kunye notyalo-mali ukuba isiphumo esiyimpumelelo esivela kwi-USPTO siphunyeziwe. I-Utility Patent ihambisa i-gravitas. Uyilo luye lwafikelela kolona vavanyo lungqongqo kwaye lunikwe esona sigwebo sinqweneleka kakhulu: olu yilo luvela kumazwe angaphandle.

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