# How To Solve The Formula For The Specified Variable Stress Inventory

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## Stress Inventory

Ukucinga ngoxinzelelo: Uxinzelelo luhlala lunentsingiselo engalunganga. Ukungaphumeleli, izigulo, uxinzelelo luhlala luphawulwa njengoxinzelelo. Uxinzelelo lunokuba sisiphumo sezinto ezifana nokunyuswa komsebenzi, ukudluliselwa, uthando lokuqala kunye nokunye okunjalo.

U-Ivancevich noMatteson (1980) bachaza uxinzelelo njengempendulo elungelelanisiweyo elamlwa ziimpawu zomntu ngamnye okanye inkqubo yengqondo esisiphumo saso nasiphi na isenzo sangaphakathi, imeko okanye isiganeko esibeka iimfuno ezikhethekileyo ngokwasemzimbeni okanye ngokwasengqondweni emntwini. Umsebenzi wobuvulindlela kaHans Selye (1974) ukhanyisa uxinzelelo, kwaye wazisa ingqikelelo yoxinzelelo kwisangqa sezenzululwazi. Njengoko kubonwe ngasentla ezahlukeneyo zeesayikholojisti zinike iinkcazo ezahlukeneyo kuxinzelelo. U-Bourne no-Ekstrand (1982) bachaza uxinzelelo njengalo naliphi na ilizwe apho umzimba utyekele ekuhlanganiseni ubuncwane bawo kwaye ngexesha apho usebenzisa amandla amaninzi ebeza kuvelisa ekuqaleni. Ngokuka-Shanmugham (1981) uxinezeleko yiyo nayiphi na imeko ecinezela amandla okumelana nomntu.

Ukuxinezeleka kunokukhokelela kukuphazamiseka komzimba ngenxa yokuba inkqubo yomzimba yangaphakathi iyatshintsha ukuze ukwazi ukumelana noxinzelelo. Ezinye iziphazamiso zomzimba zineziphumo zexesha elifutshane ezinjengokuphazamiseka kwesisu kwaye ezinye zineziphumo zexesha elide ezifana nesilonda sesisu. Uxinzelelo ngexesha elide lukhokelela kwisifo sokuva, izintso, imithambo yegazi kunye namanye amalungu omzimba. Uphando luveze izinto eziguquguqukayo zobuntu ezenza umntu abe sesichengeni soxinzelelo. Kwafunyanwa imisebenzi ethile enika uxinzelelo olungakumbi. ULachman (1983) ucaphule imizekelo yokufumana uxinzelelo oluphezulu lomsebenzi ngabongikazi abakwiiyunithi zokhathalelo olumandla xa kuthelekiswa nabo basemsebenzini jikelele. UDharmangadan (1988) unike ingxelo yokuba ipolisa lifumene amanqaku aphezulu kuxinzelelo kunamanye amaqela omsebenzi. Ngaphandle kohlaselo olubanzi lophando kunye nokucingisisa kwethiyori, intsimi yoxinzelelo ayinayo isikhokelo sokudibanisa esinokuthi sichaze uninzi lweziphumo zophando ngendlela enengqiqo kunye nethiyori (Cooper, 1983).

Izifundo ezininzi ziye zazama ukuchonga kunye nokuphonononga iindawo ezahlukeneyo kunye nemilinganiselo yoxinzelelo. (Pestonjee, 1992, Balagangadharan kunye neBhagavathy, 1997). Uninzi lwezixhobo ezisetyenziswa kakhulu ukuvavanya uxinzelelo ziquka ishedyuli yamava oMvanje (uHolmes noRahe, i-1967) i-Personal Stress Assessment Inventory (Kindler, 1981) kunye noPhando lwamava oBomi (uSarason et al.1979) .Imiba eyahlukeneyo yeendlela zokuvavanya uxinzelelo zixutyushwa kwiRabkin kunye neStruening (1986). Sarason et al. (1978) ugqibe kwelokuba umlinganiselo woxinzelelo lobomi kufuneka ube neempawu ezintathu, a) Kufuneka uquke uludwe lweziganeko ezifunyanwa ngabantu abaphandwayo. b) Kufuneka ivumele ukureyithwa ngumphenduli ngokwakhe. c) Kufuneka ivumele ukureyithwa komntu ngamnye kwimpembelelo yobuqu yeziganeko ezifunyenweyo.

Ngokusekelwe ekubhalweni kukaJames (1982), uSutherland noCooper (1990) kunye noPohorecky (1991) umphandi uchonge iindawo ezi-8 zoxinzelelo loxinzelelo lwehlabathi jikelele kwisifundo ngasinye.

1. Uxinzelelo njenge-predisposition: Ingcamango yokujonga uxinzelelo njenge-predisposition yavela kwiminyaka emininzi ekuphenduleni iziphumo zovavanyo, ukubonwa kweklinikhi, ukuqulunqwa kwethiyori kunye nokuqinisekiswa okulindelweyo. UFriedman noRoseman (1974) Uqwalasele indlela yokuziphatha ngakumbi kwizigulana eziselula ezinesifo sentliziyo, eyathi kamva yabizwa ngokuba yi-Type A Behaviour. Abantu abaluhlobo A ngabo bakumzabalazo ongapheliyo wokufumana okuninzi nangakumbi ngexesha elifutshane.

2. Umthombo woxinzelelo entsatsheni: Indlu inokuba ngumthombo woxinzelelo. Zombini iimeko eziqhelekileyo nezingalindelekanga zifuna ukuziqhelanisa kunye nesimbo sokumelana nomntu ngamnye. Ubudlelwane phakathi kwabantu, umtshato, imiqobo yonxibelelwano, izehlo ezingalindelekanga ezinjengokutshintsha indawo yokuhlala, ukugula okanye ukufelwa lilungu losapho zongeza uxinzelelo ebantwini.

3. Umthombo woxinzelelo emsebenzini: Umsebenzi ngomnye umthombo onokubakho woxinzelelo. Iimeko eziqhelekileyo ezifana nokuthatha umsebenzi onobungozi, ochasene nomdla. Ukusebenzela imivuzo ephantsi. Ukungakhuseleki komsebenzi, ukunqongophala kovavanyo oluvela kumqeshi, ukufumana imiyalelo ephikisanayo evela kwabasemagunyeni abaphezulu kubangela uxinzelelo kuye nawuphi na umntu. Okuhambisana noku, ukuphulukana nomsebenzi, ukulibaziseka kweentlawulo kunye nokuphazamiseka kobudlelwane phakathi kwamahlakani nako kubangela uxinzelelo.

4. Uvavanyo oluqhutywayo lweemeko: Uvavanyo lomntu ngamnye malunga nemeko ethile lubalulekile ekubhaleni imeko njengoxinzelelo. Imeko enoxinzelelo olukhulu emntwini, umzekelo ukutshintshelwa emsebenzini, inokubonwa njengethuba lokudibana nabantu abatsha kwaye babone iindawo ezintsha ngomnye.

5. Iziphumo zeSomatic zoxinzelelo: Iziphumo zeSomatic ezifana nentloko ebuhlungu, i-angina, ukuphelelwa ngumdla, ukuqhina, iingxaki zokuphefumla, ukubila okugqithisileyo zidla ngokubonwa njengezalathisi zoxinzelelo.

6. Iziphumo zengqondo: Iziphumo zengqondo ezifana nokuphuthelwa, amaphupha amabi, ukucaphuka, nokuphelelwa lithemba, umsindo ekugxekeni, ixhala,

ukudinwa, ukutshaya kakhulu kunye nokusetyenziswa kakubi kweziyobisi kunokubalwa njengokubonakalisa uxinzelelo.

7. Iipateni ezicacileyo zokuphendula uxinzelelo: Iipateni zomntu ngamnye zokuphendula uxinzelelo luphawu lobuntu bakhe. Abanye abantu babonisa intiyo kunye nokucaphuka kwiimeko zoxinzelelo ngelixa abanye beba nomnqweno kwaye bavume.

8. Ukuzibandakanya kwimisebenzi yokunciphisa uxinzelelo: Kubomi bemihla ngemihla, abantu badibana neemeko ezininzi ezivuselela uxinzelelo. Umnqweno owenziwe ngamabom okanye ongazi kakuhle wokuphuma kuxinzelelo ubonakala kwisantya sokunyuka komdla oboniswe kwimidlalo kunye nemidlalo, ukujoyina iiklabhu, ukukhuliswa kwezilwanyana zasekhaya, ukubukela iimuvi njl.njl.

UKUKHETHA KWEZINTO

Ngesiseko soncwadi oluhambelanayo kunye neengxoxo ezicacileyo kunye neengcali kwintsimi, kwakucetywe ukwakha uluhlu lwempahla ukulinganisa uxinzelelo kwinqanaba lamanqaku amahlanu. I-15 kwizinto ze-20 zakhiwe kwindawo nganye yoxinzelelo oluye lwavela kwiingxoxo. Unyameko oluphezulu luthathiwe ukuze kubonwe ukuba into nganye ihambelana nendawo ethile eyakhiwe phantsi kwayo kwaye ayihambelani.

Izinto ezidwelisiweyo zakhiwe ngendlela yeengxelo. Isiteyitimenti ngasinye sasinxulumene nokudala imeko okanye kubangele amava oxinzelelo. Zizonke iinkcazo ezili-140 zakhiwe kwaye la manyathelo okhuseleko alandelayo athatyathwa ngelixa kusakhiwa izinto zovavanyo.

1. Into nganye yakhiwe ngesiMalayalam esilula ukuze iqondwe lula.

2. Ingqalelo yoqwalaselo yathathwa ukwenza izinto zikhululeke kwinto enqwenelekayo kwintlalontle.

3. Inkathalo eyaneleyo yahlawulwa ukuze kubonwe ukuba into nganye inxulumene ngokusondeleyo noxinzelelo.

4. Ukwenzela ukulawula isethi yokuvuma izifundo, ii-ayithem zenziwa ngazo zombini iifom ezivumayo nezinegative.

Zama

Izinto zovavanyo zacwangciswa ngokungacwangciswanga zaza zasetyenziswa kwiqela elingakhethwanga lootitshala besikolo abangama-50. Akukho mda wexesha unikezelweyo kwizifundo kwaye bacelwa ukuba bafunde ngocoselelo into nganye kwaye baveze uluvo lwabo malunga nayo nayiphi na indlela kwezi zintlanu ezizezinye, ‘ndivuma ngokupheleleyo’ ‘ndivuma’, ‘ndingagqibanga’, ‘bangavumelani’ ngokupheleleyo. ningavumelani’ njengoko kusenokuba njalo. Baphinde bacelwa ukuba bakhankanye, ukuba ngaba iingxelo azicacanga okanye zahlukile ngokumalunga neentsingiselo zazo. Izinto zovavanyo zaphinda zatshekishwa ngokwesiseko seempendulo ezifunyenwe kwi-tryout. Ingxelo ebiyeyalo naluphi na udidi olulandelayo iye yachithwa.

1. Iingxelo eziye zaphendulwa ngokuncomekayo okanye ngokungathandekiyo phantse ngokungaguquguqukiyo.

2. Iingxelo eziye zenza izindululo eziphezulu zeempendulo ‘ezingenazigqibo’.

3. Iingxelo ezithathwa njengezinzima okanye ezingacacanga.

Ngaloo ndlela, kwizinto ezili-140, izinto ezingama-28 zakhatywa ngokupheleleyo. Iinkcazo ezili-112 ezishiyekileyo zanikwa ootitshala bePsychology ukuze bagwebe ukucaca nokujongana nokuchaneka kwento nganye. Ngokwesigwebo sabo, izinto ezili-11 ezingakumbi ziye zayekiswa kwaye ezinye izinto ezili-101 zagcinwa ukuze zizame okokugqibela kunye nohlalutyo lwento.

Uhlalutyo lwento.

UKUHLALUTYWA KWENTO

Ucazululo lwezinto ezili-101 kwimpendulo yesampulu yabafundi beekholeji ezingama-300 lwenziwa kudidi lwe-Liker uhlobo lwesi-5 lwesikali ukusuka ku-‘vuma ngokupheleleyo’ ukuya ‘kungathathwanga’ ukuya ‘kungavumelani ngokupheleleyo’. Amanqaku eempendulo yomntu ngamnye ashwankathelwe kwizinto ezili-101. (Emva kokuguqula inqaku lenqaku elingalunganga libe lilungile). Izifundo ezingama-75 zamanqaku aphezulu kunye nezifundo ezingama-75 zamanqaku aphantsi zahlolwa. La maqela mabini agqithisayo asetyenziselwa ukujonga izalathiso zocalucalulo zokwamkelwa kwekhrayitheriya yokuhambelana kwangaphakathi ecetyiswe nguLikert (1932). t-ixabiso libalwe ukuthelekisa amanqaku aphakathi kwamaqela amabini agqithileyo kwinto nganye. Onke amaxabiso e-t anikiwe kwizihlomelo. Ezo zinto zinexabiso le-t elibalulekileyo kwinqanaba le-0.01 zigcinwe kwi-inventory. Ngaloo ndlela izinto ezingama-66 zakhethwa kwifom yokugqibela.

UKUTHEMBEKA

Ukuze kuqinisekiswe ukuthembeka kwe-inventri, ukuhambelana kwangaphakathi njengoko kuchazwe yindlela yesiqingatha sokwahlula kubalwe ngokusekelwe kwiimpendulo ezinikwe isampuli yabafundi beekholeji ze-50. Umzuzwana wemveliso u-co-efficient of consistency yangaphakathi njengoko ilungiswe yi-formula ye-Spearman-Brown yafunyanwa yi-0.74. Ukuvavanya ukuhambelana kwesikhashana, uluhlu lwempahla lwalawulwa ngokufanayo kubafundi bekholeji abangama-50 emva kweeveki ezi-4. Uvavanyo lokuvavanya kwakhona i-coefficient yolungelelaniso lufunyenwe luyi-0.79 kunye nokuhambelana kwexesha libe yi-0.88.

UKUSEBENZA

Ukuqinisekisa ukuba i-HSI yayisisixhobo esisebenzayo, ukuqinisekiswa komxholo kuye kwamiselwa. Ezi zinto zanikwa ootitshala abahlanu bePsychology (njengoko bekutshiwo ngaphambili) ababenolwazi olwaneleyo namava kule nkalo. Bafunda yonke into kwaye bagwebe ngenyameko inqanaba loxinzelelo olubonakaliswa ngumntu ngamnye. Ngenxa yale njongo abagwebi banikwa itheyibhile apho kwakufuneka ukuba babeke yonke into phantsi kwenye yezi ntlobo ze-5 zilandelayo, bavuma ngokupheleleyo / bayavuma / abagqibanga / abavumi / abavumi ngokupheleleyo. Kwakhona abagwebi baye bacelwa ukuba bakhankanye ezo zinto mhlawumbi zingabhalwanga kakuhle okanye kunzima ukuziqonda. Ngokwesiseko soluvo lwabo kuphela izinto ezili-101 ziphantsi kohlalutyo lwento kwaye kuzo izinto ezingama-66 ezizaliswe ngokupheleleyo imilinganiselo ekugqibeleni zibandakanyiwe kuluhlu.

UDkt. Hari S.Chandran, M.Phil (Psy), Ph.D, PGDPC usebenza njenge-Cons. Ingcali yengqondo, iSebe lokuPhila kunye neMpilo yeNgqondo, iSibhedlele seMishini yaseSt.Gregorios, eParumala. Kerala, dr_hari@sancharnet

IZIQINISEKISO

I-Balagangadaran, i-A kunye ne-Bhagavathy, i-KA, Uphononongo lobuntu kunye nokubonwa kwezinto ezinobungozi kwi-CHD, iPhepha elinikezelwe kwiSemina yoxinzelelo kunye nokulawula uxinzelelo, i-Dept.of Psychology, iYunivesithi yaseKerala, i-1997

Bourne, EL kunye Ekstrand, G. Psychology, London: CBS College Pub., 1982

Cooper, CL, UPhando lweStress, imiba yee-Eighties. ENew York: UJohn Wiley, ngo-1983

UDharmangadan B., Uxinzelelo emsebenzini-Ukuthelekiswa kwemisebenzi emihlanu, izifundo zePsychological, 1988, 162-69.

Holmes.TH kunye noRahe, iSocial readjustment scale, Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 1967 (11) 211-218

U-Ivancevich JM noMaterson, Uxinzelelo emsebenzini. IsiSkotlani. Umphathiswa, ngo-1980.

James, CN, Intshayelelo kwiPsychology yonyango eNew York; Ushicilelo lwasimahla, ngo-1982.

Kindler, HA, Personal Stress Assessment inventory, New York: Iziko lolawulo olusebenzayo, ngo-1981

I-Lachman.VD, i-Stress Management-Manual for Nurses, eNew York: i-Grune kunye ne-Stratton Inc, i-1983.

I-Likert.R ,Ubuchule bokulinganisa izikali zengqondo, i-Archieves of Psychology, eNew York, ngo-1932.

Pehoreeky.LA, Uxinzelelo kunye nokusebenzisana kotywala, Uhlaziyo loPhando loLuntu,

Ijenali yoTywala, iKlinikhi kunye noPhando loVavanyo 1991 (3) 438-59.

I-Pestonjee DM, Uxinzelelo kunye nokujongana nale meko: Amava aseIndiya, eNew Delhi,

Sagar pub.1992

I-Rabkin JG kunye ne-Struening.EL Iziganeko zoBomi, uxinzelelo kunye nokugula, iSayensi 1986, 1013-020

USarason IG, Ukuvavanya impembelelo yobomi Utshintsho kuxinzelelo kunye noxinzelelo (Ed)

Sarason, IG. London: IHemisphere Pub.Co.1979

Selye HA, Uxinzelelo ngaphandle koxinzelelo, Philadelphia: Lippincot, 1974.

Shanmugham, TE, Psychology engaqhelekanga, New Delhi: TMH Pub. Co.1981

I-Sutherland.VJ kunye ne-Cooper.CL, uxinzelelo lokuqonda: Umbono wengqondo kubasebenzi bezeMpilo, eLondon: i-Chapman kunye neHolo ye-1990.

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