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## Heat and Temperature: An Overview

**Temperature:** Heat is one of the first known forms of energy. Heat is related to temperature. Temperature gives us a sense of how hot or cold something is. However, if heat is the cause, heat is the effect.

If heat is supplied to a substance its temperature increases except during a phase/state change (solid to liquid or liquid to gas).

We use different units of temperature namely Celsius, Fahrenheit or kelvin. The SI unit of speed is the Kelvin. The following conversion formula is useful for converting temperature from one unit to another.

(C-0)/(100-0) =(F-32)/(212-32) =(K-273) /(373-273) Which is simply C/5 =F-32/9 or K= 273 +C.

Regarding heat it is important to note that

- -40 C=-40 F (only temp equal on both scales)
- Temp in Kelvin cannot be negative.
- The lowest temperature= 0 K or -273 C but there is no limit to the highest temperature.
- 1 time difference C=1 k velocity difference.

Temperature is defined by the zeroth law of thermodynamics which states If A and B are in thermal equilibrium, B and C are in thermal equilibrium then A and C will be in thermal equilibrium.

*Temperature measurement* it is called thermometry. To measure temperature, we choose a property of a substance (such as the length of a column of mercury or the resistivity of a metal) that varies with temperature. This property is called the thermometric property.

Actually temperature and its measurement are not direct. We measure the change in a thermometric property and relate it to temperature in a quantitative way. We use different thermometers for different temperature ranges.

**Heat calculation**

Let us take the mass (m) of any object initially at temperature t1. Now we apply heat (Q) to this object so that the temperature of the object is raised at t2. It has been noted that Q is directly proportional to mass (the more mass the heat, the less mass at the same temperature for the same temperature increase. Q is also proportional to the temperature difference (more heat is required to cause more change to maintain the same temperature). —–Q=m C (delta t) where C is defined as the specific heat capacity or specific heat of the material.

The physical property of goods and their value depends only on the material (regardless of its shape and size)

C=Q/m(delta t)

Let m=1 kg, delta t=1 C or 1 K. We get C=Q. So we can use this formula to define C. *Some heat* is defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 unit of unit mass. Its SI unit is J/Kg K. Another unit of Cal/gm C is also very popular. 1 Cal=4.186 J approx =4.2 J. For example the specific heat of water is 1 Cal/gm C or 4200 J/kg K. The specific heat of copper is 0.1 cal /gm C. This means that if we take 1 gm of both (water and copper) to be heated by 1 C copper requires 0.1 cal and water requires 1 cal (about 10 times more than copper). The specific temperature of water is very useful in everyday life. Water used:

- As a coolant in engines.
- Hot water bottles are used for fermentation.
- Farmers filled their fields with water to protect crops from frost.

If we use the formula Q=mC(delta t) to calculate the temperature in a phase or state of change. We know that temperature doesn’t change so delta t=0 so temperature by this formula comes out to be zero but we know for real we have to give some temperature. So this temperature formula does not work in case of phase change. For phase/state of transition we use Q=mL; Where m=mass, L=latent heat (condensation or absorption depending on the process). So we have only two ways to calculate temperature:

- Q=m C (delta t){will be used when the condition is the same and the change occurs)
- Q=m L(will be used when the state/phase changes with the rate of heat.= constant).

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