What Is The Formula For Density Mass And Volume Strange Secrets Of Star Birth Revealed By Andromeda

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Strange Secrets Of Star Birth Revealed By Andromeda

Zonke iibhiliyoni kunye neebhiliyoni zeenkwenkwezi ezibeka iGalaxy yethu iMilky Way kumlilo omangalisayo ngokugqabhuka kokukhanya okumangalisayo, zazalwa ngenxa yokuwa komxhuzulane weglowubhu exinene ngokugqithisileyo, eqhaqhazelis’ amazinyo, emiliselwe kumandlalo omkhulu kunye nesiporho, esibhudlayo, ilifu elimnyama lemolekyuli. La mafu abandayo akhiwe ngerhasi kunye nothuli asebenza njengeendawo ezingaqhelekanga zeenkwenkwezi zabantwana kwaye asasazeke kwiGalaxy yethu ngamanani amakhulu. Kodwa, nangona zonke iinkwenkwezi zizalwa ngendlela enye–kwaye zingazodwa–azifani zonke, kwaye zinokwahluka ngobunzima ngaphezu komlinganiselo we-1,000. Umbuzo ngowokuba leliphi iqhezu leenkwenkwezi eziphuma kumqolo ojikelezayo walamafu afana ne-phantom-ayilwe kakhulu yigesi ye-hydrogen ebandayo–azalwa ngokwamaqela agcina izigebenga eziluhlaza, iincinci ezityheli, kunye nobomvu. iinkwenkwezi ezincinci? NgoSeptemba 2015, izazi ngeenkwenkwezi zisebenzisa i I-Hubble Space Telescope (HST) banike ingxelo ngeziphumo zabo zokuba, nangasiphi na isizathu, iNdalo ibonakala ipheka iinkwenkwezi ngokungathi “zizibhetshi zeekuki” – kwaye kukho usasazo olungaguqukiyo ukusuka kwiinkwenkwezi ezinkulu ukuya kwiinkwenkwezi ezincinci. Izazi ngeenkwenkwezi zamangaliswa kukufumanisa ukuba lo mlinganiselo uyafana kweyethu iMilky Way nakumnyele omkhulu wasebumelwaneni weAndromeda, ngenxa yefiziksi entsonkothileyo ebandakanyekayo ekuzalweni kweenkwenkwezi.

Ngoko ke, eyona ndlela ingcono yokuphendula lo mbuzo asikokukhangela kuyo yonke indawo eyethu i-starlit, i-spiral Milky Way Galaxy–kuba singaphakathi kuyo–kodwa ukujonga kude emajukujukwini kumnyele wethu we-Andromeda (M31)– apho sinokuba ngaphandle sijonge ngaphakathi!

Kuphando lwe HST imifanekiso ye-2,753 yolutsha, iqoqo leenkwenkwezi eziluhlaza ezihlala eAndromeda, iqela lezazi ngeenkwenkwezi lifumanise ukuba iM31 kunye neGalaxy yethu inepesenti efanayo yeenkwenkwezi ezisanda kuzalwa ezisekelwe kubunzima. Ngokumisela ukuba yeyiphi ipesenti yabemi beenkwenkwezi abanobunzima obuthile ngaphakathi kweqela labo lendalo, okanye Umsebenzi woMninzi wokuQala (IMF)izazi ngeenkwenkwezi zinokukuchaza kakuhle ukukhanya okuvela kwiminyele ethe qelele, nto leyo enokuzinceda ziqonde imbali yokuyilwa kweenkwenkwezi kuyo yonke Indalo iphela.

Uphando oluneenkcukacha, lwakhiwe ukusuka kwi-414 HST imifanekiso ye-mosaic ye-M31, yenziwe yintsebenziswano phakathi kwezazi ngeenkwenkwezi kunye “noososayensi belizwe”. “Izazinzulu zabemi” yayingamavolontiya anikezela ngoncedo oluxabisekileyo ekuhlalutyeni isixa esikhulu sedatha evela. HST.

“Ngenxa yomthamo omkhulu we Hubble imifanekiso, isifundo sethu se IMF ngebengenzeki ngaphandle koncedo lwezazinzulu zabemi,” utshilo uGqr. Daniel Weisz ngoSeptemba 3, 2015. I-Hubblesite Press Release. UGqr. Weisz weYunivesithi yaseWashington eSeattle, kwaye ukhokele umbhali kwiphepha elavela kwi-20 kaJuni ngo-2015. Ijenali yeAstrophysical.

“Zonke Iinkwenkwezi Azidalwanga Ngokulinganayo”

Inkwenkwezi yethu eqaqambileyo, iLanga, ngummi weenkwenkwezi yedwa kwiGalaxy yethu; ihlelwa ngokugxothwayo njengento encinci umthubi. Nangona iLanga lethu ngoku liyibhola eyedwa yomlilo, ejikelezayo, ubukhulu becala igesi yehydrogen, ibingasoloko ihluthwe ngabanye abaluhlobo lwayo olumenyezelayo. ILanga lethu kusenokwenzeka ukuba lazalwa lilungu elishinyeneyo vula iqoqo lenkwenkwezi kunye namawaka ngokoqobo ezinye iinkwenkwezi ezimenyezelayo. Ngokuqhelekileyo kucingelwa ukuba iLanga lokuzala laphoswa ngaphandle kweqela lalo lokuzalwa okanye lasuka ladada kude kubantakwabo beenkwenkwezi malunga ne-4.5 yezigidigidi zeminyaka eyadlulayo. Abazalwana noodade abalahlekileyo beNkwenkwezi yethu kudala babhadula baya kwimimandla ethe qelele yeGalaxy yethu–kwaye apho isenokuba baninzi kangange-3,500 yaba bahambi beenkwenkwezi. Mhlawumbi iqela lethu lokuzalwa leNkwenkwezi laqala malunga nama-500 ukuya kuma-3,000 obunzima belanga kunye nobubanzi obungaphantsi kweminyaka engama-20 yokukhanya–nto leyo eqhelekileyo vula amaqela.

Isixokelelwano sethu sezijikelezi-langa senziwa yingxubakaxaka yamaqhekeza awayeziintsalela zenyukliya, kodwa ngoku ziziko ekudala zafa, zezizukulwana zangaphambili zeenkwenkwezi. ILanga lethu (njengabantakwenu abathandekayo) lazalelwa kwindawo ebandayo, exinene ngokugqithisileyo eyayifakwe kwimiphetho yelifu elimnyama lemolekyuli. Kubunzulu obufihlakeleyo bala mafu makhulu ubukhulu becala erhasi yehydrogen, imisonto eethe-ethe yemathiriyeli iyadibana, idibane, ize ke ikhule kangangamakhulu amawaka eminyaka. Emva koko, wagona ngokungenalusini ngokutyumza amandla omxhuzulane, iiathom zehydrogen ezikule ngqimba ngokukhawuleza zaxubana, zilayita umlilo oza kuvutha ngumsindo, ukukhanya okuqaqambileyo ngalo lonke ixesha inkwenkwezi entsha iphila – kuba le yindlela. zonke iinkwenkwezi ziyazalwa.

IGalaxy yethu i-200 ukuya kuma-400 eebhiliyoni zeenkwenkwezi zonke zazalwa ngolu hlobo–ngomxhuzulane wokudilika kwamaqhina axineneyo abekwe ngaphakathi kokugotywa kwamafu emolekyuli abandayo athe saa kwiMilky Way yethu. Amafu ngokwawo aqulethe iintsalela zezizukulwana ezidala zeenkwenkwezi ezatshabalala kudala, zaza ke zadityaniswa neenkwenkwezi ezisandul’ ukuvela zezizukulwana ezilandelayo.

ILanga lethu ngoku liyi-a ulandelelwano olungundoqo (i-hydrogen-burning), iNkwenkwezi eneminyaka ephakathi. Njengoko iinkwenkwezi zihamba, akukho nto ikhethekileyo ngayo. Kukho iiplanethi, iinyanga, ii-asteroids, kunye ne-comets ezijikeleza iNkwenkwezi yethu, ehlala ngoxolo kwiindawo ezikude zeMilky Way yethu, eyinto eqhelekileyo-nangona intle kwaye intle–iGalaxy enkulu ejikeleza ngeenkwenkwezi.

I-Universe yangaphambili yayisisigqubuthelo sobumnyama obumangalisayo kangangexesha elide. Isizukulwana sokuqala seenkwenkwezi kusenokwenzeka ukuba asizange sivuthe kwade kwamalunga ne-100 lezigidi zeminyaka okanye emva koko emva kokuzalwa kweBig Bang yeCosmos malunga ne-13.8 yeebhiliyoni zeminyaka eyadlulayo. Izazinzulu kudala zinika iinkcazo-bungcali malunga nendlela olu tshintsho lukhulu ngayo ukusuka kubumnyama obungenamsebenzi ukuya ekukhanyeni.

Nangona kunjalo, ukufunda ngeNdalo yamandulo kuyingxaki. Oku kungenxa yokuba izinto eziqwalaselweyo zeNdalo yonke ngelo xesha zamandulo azikho. I-Supercomputer simulations, nangona kunjalo, ibonelele ngengqiqo, ebonisa ukuba isizukulwana sokuqala seenkwenkwezi kufuneka sizalwe phakathi kwe-100 yezigidi kunye ne-250 yezigidi zeminyaka emva kweBig Bang. Iinkwenkwezi zokuqala zicingelwa ukuba zibambe umlilo kwi-shapeless yakudala kwaye encinci iprotogalactic Ulwakhiwo oluye lwavela kuguquguquka koxinzelelo kwiNdalo yokuqala. Ngokuba eyona yakudala iiprotogalaksi Ibingenazo izinto ezinobunzima kune-hydrogen kunye ne-helium ecocekileyo–ezo zombini zazalelwa kwibhola yomlilo yeBig Bang ngokwayo. (I-Big Bang nucleosynthesis)– Ifiziksi yokuzalwa kwenkwenkwezi kwiNdalo yamandulo yayithanda ukuyilwa kwezinto ezazinkulu kakhulu kwaye ziqaqambe ngakumbi kuneLanga lethu. Imitha ephuma kwesona sizukulwana sakudala seenkwenkwezi yafaka i-ion kwigesi yehydrogen ecocekileyo. Ezinye zeenkwenkwezi ezinkulu zagqabhuka ngumsindo ovuthayo we-supernovae–zikrazula zada zaqhekeka ngolo qhushumbo luhle, luqaqambileyo, nolubulalayo ngokungaguqukiyo. Umlilo we-supernova usasaze izinto ezisandul ‘ukwenziwa ezinobunzima kune-hydrogen kunye ne-helium (ebizwa ngokuba yi-helium). iintsimbi zizazi ngeenkwenkwezi), ezadalwa kwiziko lokudibanisa inyukliya yeenkwenkwezi zamandulo, kuyo yonke iCosmos yamandulo. Zonke izinto ezinobunzima kune-hydrogen kunye ne-helium zaye zenziwa kwiziko elitshisayo leenkwenkwezi, eziye zadityaniswa ngokuthe ngcembe izakhi zeathom ezinde zisiba nzinyana kwaye zibe nzinyana ziphuma kwezo zikhaphukhaphu. (i-nucleosynthesis yeenkwenkwezi). Intsimbi esegazini lethu, ikhalsiyam emathanjeni ethu, ioksijini esiyiphefumlayo, ikhabhoni esisiseko sobomi emhlabeni, zonke zenziwa kwiintliziyo zeenkwenkwezi ezixubana nenyukliya–okanye, ngenye indlela, kwi-supernova yazo eqaqambileyo. ukufa. Ezona zinto zinzima zeathom kuzo zonke–ezifana negolide kunye ne-uranium–zenziwe ngomsindo, uqhushumbo oluvuthayo lwale nkwenkwezi iqhumayo yokudubula kozuko lokugqibela.

Iinkwenkwezi zabo bonke abantu – ezinkulu nezincinci – “ziphila” ngokutshisa i-hydrogen, ulandelelwano olungundoqo “ubomi” ngokuvuya ukutshisa amafutha abo e-hydrogen kwizinto ezinzima kwaye ezinzima. Iinkwenkwezi ziphumeza oku ngokukwazi ukugcina ulungelelwano oluxabisekileyo, oluthambileyo, oluyimfuneko phakathi kwemikhosi emibini ehlala isilwa–uxinzelelo lwemitha kwaye umxhuzulane. Yenkwenkwezi uxinzelelo lwemitha izama ukunyanzela yonke into kudengelixa umxhuzulane ifuna ukutsala yonke into kwi. Le idabi yamandulo phakathi uxinzelelo lwemitha kwaye umxhuzulane yeyona nto igcina le bhola ivuzayo, ishushu, iqengqeleka kunye nebhola enkulu yerhasi kwaye imfiliba. Yeha, xa inkwenkwezi ide yasigqiba isibaso sayo esifunekayo senyukliya, ilungele ukwenza umsebenzi wayo wokuvalelisa. Ukuba yinkwenkwezi enciphayo, njengeLanga lethu, itshabalala ngoxolo ngokukhukhumala irhasi yayo entle, enemibala emininzi isiya kwisithuba esiphakathi kweenkwenkwezi. Nangona kunjalo, ukuba lilungu elikhulu ngakumbi kumyezo wezilwanyana weenkwenkwezi, liyavutha ngumsindo ngokuchasene nokungaphepheki “kokufa” kwalo ngokuziqhumisa ngokubetha i-supernova kugqabhuko-dubulo lwe-supernova, apho iphosa izinto zayo zeenkwenkwezi kwindawo ephakathi kweenkwenkwezi ngokumangalisayo. , ubungcwangu bomlilo.

Iimfihlo ezingaqhelekanga zokuZalwa kweNkwenkwezi zityhilwe nguAndromeda

Ukulinganisa i IMF yayiyeyona njongo iphambili ye Ii-HST’s Uphando olunomdla kakhulu lwepanoramic yenkanyezi yethu enkulu, ummelwane ojikelezayo we-galactic, Andromeda. Uphando, olubizwa ngokuba yi Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury (PHAT) Le nkqubo, ihlolisise imifanekiso engama-8 000 yeenkwenkwezi ezizizigidi ezili-117 ezikuloo mnyele, ezafunyanwa ngokujonga iAndromeda kwindawo ekufuphi neultraviolet, ebonakalayo nakufutshane ne-infrared wavelengths.

Ngaphambili Ii-HST’s Uphando olumangalisayo lwe-star-splattered disk ye-Andromeda, izazi ngeenkwenkwezi zazinawo kuphela. IMF imilinganiselo eyenziwa kwindawo yeenkwenkwezi yasekhaya ngaphakathi kweMilky Way yethu. Nangona kunjalo, Ii-HST’s umbono omangalisayo weAndromeda, wenza ukuba izazi ngeenkwenkwezi zikwazi ukuthelekisa IMF phakathi kwesampulu enkulu kunangaphambili yamaqela eenkwenkwezi zonke ezikumgama ofanayo ukusuka kwiplanethi yethu–2.5 yezigidi zeminyaka yokukhanya. Uphando lwahlukeneyo ngenxa yokuba amaqela eenkwenkwezi asasazwe kuwo wonke umnyele; ziyahluka ngobunzima ngezinto ze-10, kwaye zisusela kwi-4 yezigidi ukuya kwi-24 yezigidi zeminyaka ubudala.

Izazi ngeenkwenkwezi zamangaliswa kukuba IMF yayifana kakhulu phakathi kwazo zonke iinkwenkwezi eziboniweyo, kwaye kwakukho usasazo oluphawulekayo olungaguqukiyo lweenkwenkwezi ukusuka kwiisupergiants ezinkulu eziluhlaza ukuya kwiinkwenkwezi ezincinci ezibomvu. “Kunzima ukucinga ukuba IMF ifana kakhulu kumnyele wethu oselumelwaneni ngenxa yefiziksi entsonkothileyo yokwakheka kweenkwenkwezi,” utshilo uGqr. Weisz ngoSeptemba 3, 2015. I-Hubblesite Press Release.

Okubangela umdla kukuba, ezona nkwenkwezi zikhulu kwaye ziqaqambile ezihlala kula maqela ngama-25 epesenti ukuba zininzi kunoko bekuqikelelwe zizifundo zangaphambili. Izazi ngeenkwenkwezi zisebenzisa ukukhanya okuphuma kwezi nkwenkwezi ziqaqambileyo ukuze zilinganise izigaba zeenkwenkwezi ezikude neminyele, kwanokulinganisa ukuba la maqela azala ngokukhawuleza kangakanani iinkwenkwezi eziziintsika ezivuthayo. Esi siphumo sinomdla sibonisa ukuba uqikelelo lobunzima olusekwe kumsebenzi wangaphambili beluphantsi kakhulu kuba becingela ukuba zimbalwa kakhulu iinkwenkwezi ezibuthathaka, ezinobunzima obuphantsi obubumba kunye neenkwenkwezi eziqaqambileyo nezinkulu.

Ubungqina obutsha bukwabonisa ukuba i-Universe yakudala yayingenazo izinto ezininzi ezinzima zokwakha iplanethi, kuba kuya kubakho ii-supernovae ezimbalwa ezivela kwiinkwenkwezi ezinkulu ukudala izinto ezinzima eziyimfuneko ekwakheni iiplanethi. Kubaluleke kakhulu ukwazi izinga lokubunjwa kwenkwenkwezi kwiNdalo yokuqala – malunga ne-10 yezigidigidi zeminyaka eyadlulayo – kuba yayilixesha apho uninzi lweenkwenkwezi zeNdalo zazalwa.

I PHAT ikhathalogu yeqela leenkwenkwezi, apho uphando olutsha lusekelwe khona, yahlanganiswa ngoncedo oluxabisekileyo lwamavolontiya angama-30,000 adibanisa amawaka emifanekiso ethathwe HST ukukhangela amaqela eenkwenkwezi.

I Iprojekthi yeAndromeda yenye yeenzame ezininzi zabemi zesayensi ezisingethwe yi Zooniverse umbutho, kwaye ngaphezulu kweentsuku ezingama-25, amavolontiya abahlali-zesayensi angenise i-1.82 yezigidi zokuhlelwa kwemifanekiso yomntu ngamnye. Ukuhlelwa kwakusekelwe kwindlela ezixinene ngayo iinkwenkwezi, ukumila kwazo, kunye nendlela iinkwenkwezi ezahluke ngayo ngasemva, nto leyo emele malunga neenyanga ezingama-24 zokujongwa kwabantu rhoqo. Izazi ngeenkwenkwezi zisebenzise olu kuhlelwa ukuchonga isampulu yamaqela eenkwenkwezi ezingama-2,753, ukwandisa inani lamaqela aziwayo ngomlinganiselo wesithandathu PHAT ummandla wovavanyo.

UGqr. Weisz waphawula kumaphephandaba ngoSeptemba 3, 2015 ukuba “Imigudu yezi nzululwazi zabemi ivula umnyango kwiintlobo ezahlukeneyo zophando lwezenzululwazi olutsha nolunomdla, kubandakanywa nomlinganiselo omtsha we IMF.

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