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Supercharger Calculators Explained
Basics of supercharger calculations…
Supercharger calculators are based on several basic equations that govern the performance and physical laws that govern superchargers. At the heart of the matter, superchargers operate on the Ideal Gas Law where PV = NRT Pressure x Volume = Number of gas molecules X constant X temperature. What superchargers do, is that they feed the engine with more air molecules, by forcing air into the engine. This air is forced into the engine by a supercharger that blows more air into the engine inlet, than the engine normally breathes through its exhaust. The effect of this ‘forced entry’ can be observed and measured in one of two ways: Pressure or temperature. In an ideal world, with a supercharger working perfectly adiabically, we would be able to feed the engine with twice the air molecules (double the horsepower), by doubling the inlet air pressure (to 2.0 atmospheres or what we call 15 pounds per – square inch (PSI) pressure). In the real world, a supercharger is not 100% efficient, and so it is possible that doubling the inlet pressure gives us less than double the power due to the following:
IP * V = n * R * T Pressure increases at level 2 Volume is constant Number of gas molecules increases by 80% (or 1.8 factor) Temperature increases by 11% (or 1.11) If we look at the equation from our above we can see: 2 * P * V = 1.8 * N * R * 1.11T The equation is calculated as 2.0X1 = 1.8 * 1.11 (pressure increase is like the combined effect of airflow increase and temperature increase).
From here, we can also see that even at the same level of ‘boost’, that a more efficient supercharger can make more horse power because more power of the supercharger is converted into pressure and air flow than thermal increase… So, how do we bring these equations into the ‘real world’ ‘ about horsepower and boost ? Let’s start with the 2.0 liter (volume), 140hp (air molecules) engine. Let’s say we have a target of 280 horsepower. Our flow rate will correspond to the ratio of our target power to our current power …. Density ratio = 280/140 = 2.0 Mass = weight / volume and since the volume of the engine is fixed at 2.0 liters, then we want to equal 2.0 times of air in the same volume. This means we have to put twice as many air molecules into the engine. Now let’s assume we have a supercharger with 70% efficiency. This means that to reach a density ratio of 2.0, we need a pressure ratio: P = 2.0 / 0.70 = 2.85 A pressure ratio of 2.85 is equal to 27 psi. If we look instead at the temperature rise … then T2 / T1 = Pressure ratio / mass ratio So the supercharger outlet temperature T2 = Pressure ratio (P) / Mass ratio * T1 (where the temperature is in degrees Kelvin).
Assuming that the inlet temperature is 80*F, we find that the supercharger outlet is T2 = 309*F What you can think of here are intercoolers or aftercoolers…. After cooling the radiators that dissipate the heat away from the air who is oppressed after it. leaving the main charger. A good intercooler cools the air temperature dramatically without significantly obstructing the air flow and therefore with a small pressure drop. An intercooler increases horsepower in three ways:
1 – By cooling the air charge, the density ratio of the mixture increases at the same pressure ratio.
2 – The final temperature of the fuel-air mixture entering the engine decreases, which gives a more powerful combustion process (since the power output of the combustion event is directly proportional to the difference between the temperatures of the intake and the temperature of the exhaust mixture).
3 – Reducing the final octane requirements of the mixture, which allows us to add more time or more pressure, and create more horse power within the same octane limits.
With a good intercooler, we can lower the intake charge temperature up to 30 degrees of ambient air temperature. At the same time the intercooler will have a marginal 0.5 to 1.0 psi pressure drop across the core. With these figures in mind, the combination of the Supercharger with the active intercooler gives us a system with an adiabatic efficiency very close to 100%, and this means that we can double the power of our original engine with about 18psi of boost (instead of 27 without -intercooler, and instead of the 15 “proper” supercharger) if you care to go through the math behind this situation.
Once you have your compression ratio, your compression ratio, your intercooler temperatures and your total horsepower and flow numbers, most supercharger calculators can give you more details about your car’s build (such as supercharger gear numbers, and and feed requirements. and exhaust rates, and fuel pressure or fuel flow optimization requirements). But at the heart of any supercharged or turbocharged vehicle, PV = nRT will always be true. This is great information to know, because many people have chosen to try selling the water pumps that are commonly used on boats as large ‘electric’ chargers for small displacement engines. It has been shown many times that by hooking a boost gauge to the inlet of any of these ‘electrically charged’ engines that these bilge pumps have no flow or restrict the pressure force to increase the pressure of the inlet mixture by any measurable amount. . The pressure (as we explained before) is not the only thing that indicates the forced intake … but there is NO increase in pressure at all, which means that the supercharger ‘electrical’ has 0% efficiency, which means that the best will be just. heat the intake air and no excess air will be seen.
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