What Is The Formula For Volume For A Cylinder Chemistry and Thermodynamics

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Chemistry and Thermodynamics

Lost in the scientific jungle.

The study of science begins for everyone as a small path in the forest of ignorance, but with effort and experience, that path becomes our path of knowledge and knowledge, opening many opportunities. Albert Einstein, like everyone else, started in the forest, and showed that getting out is worth the effort, not only for him, but for all his knowledge of the People. Science is not for everyone and there are few Einsteins. Sadly many are lost, confused and confused, giving up before they can say their first “Eureka”, as the treasure of knowledge falls into place. Those “Eureka” moments can encourage us to continue down our particular path.

So the first step is to be motivated and want to know more.

The next important step is to pay attention to the definitions: something important everywhere: in sports you need to know the rules of playing the game: the same in science. Knowing the definitions eliminates confusion, and using them (to solve problems) reinforces them. Eventually the scientific method and thinking becomes a way of life, and provides insight into many situations, even outside of your area of ​​expertise.

A structure appears. For example, life sciences and medicine rest on biochemistry and pharmacology, which rest on organic chemistry, and organic rests on physical chemistry. Physical chemistry rests on physics, and mathematics is the thought that unites them all.

Along the way there are many sub-sections, too many to list here: innovation, nano-technology are both important and well-known. Also different areas meet in many disciplines, such as physical and organic chemistry (natural chemistry); organic synthesis and chemical kinetics (organocatalysis), inorganic and organic chemistry (organometallic chemistry): the list goes on and on.

Obviously no one person can be an expert in all these areas. However, a good foundation in the natural sciences allows one to be in a position to appreciate the work of others in many scientific fields. You could end up being a lawyer, social worker or finance. A good background in science will help a lawyer argue his case for, say, patent infringement; it helps the social worker understand the side effects of medications the client may be taking, and allows the investor to make smarter decisions about whether to invest in one mining company or another.

On the other hand, you can be a scientist which leads to many interesting careers.

Scientists and engineers

Science can be divided into two broad categories: basic science (research), and applying those ideas (engineering: also called Research and Development (R&D)). Today there are ten times more engineers than scientists. It takes a lot of effort and a lot of people to take basic ideas developed by a few, and turn them into techniques that we use to improve the quality of our lives.

Consider the automobile industry. An internal combustion engine, based on the Otto cycle was developed by a few (who proved it worked), and many engineers took that basic idea and over the last century developed the cars we have today.

To be a good engineer, you need to start with the basics and learn the basics before you use them.

Macroscopic and microscopic

A broad division of science is into macroscopic (a sample large enough to measure and test), and microscopic (atoms, atoms, molecules and collections of these, too small to be observed by others).

There are two major branches of macroscopic science: Thermodynamics (the study of heat, work and efficiency), and Classical Mechanics (Newtonian physics that describes the movement of large objects).

The microscopic is governed by quantum mechanics.

Since microscopic particles have a lot of symmetry, the field of group theory (the study of mathematics) should be mentioned. This helps to see molecules and reactions, and has some importance in the most basic science, which is physics. You don’t have to be a mathematician to use group theory. Mathematics is the tool of scientists: logic guides us.

The field of Statistical Mechanics relates macroscopic objects to their smallest particles.

An example of chemistry

Chemistry is the study of the making and breaking of bonds – that is how chemicals react to make different chemicals. Chemical reactions continue if the conditions are right: two important conditions are energy and entropy. Both are substances and entropy appears as energy. How does this happen?

Engineers started noticing things a few hundred years ago: like horses walking in circles and driving machines to fire cannons. The horses moved at a constant speed, (constant power) but the bull bit produced more heat and not much work (the boring cannon was slower), but the sharp bit produced less heat and was more boring. This is the First Law of Thermodynamics:

Power (horsepower) = heat (friction) + work (cannon bore).

Obviously energy is not very expensive (horses need to be bought, fed and cared for), so it would be better to reduce heat loss and increase work done. That is, energy efficiency became an important consideration.

In the 19th century, thermodynamics emerged further motivated by the need to increase the efficiency of the steam engine that was driving the industrial revolution. The first steam engines were only about 3% efficient and so improvements were definitely needed. Adding a second cylinder, for example, improved things a lot but could they do more? Is the dream of 100% success possible – ie perpetual motion?

This led Sadi Carnot in the 1830s to describe a steam engine cycle in which entropy was discovered, and the Second Law of Thermodynamics was formulated – perpetual motion was shown to be impossible. The Otto cycle was developed for the internal combustion engine about forty years later.

Although alchemy is an old study, it was only after the First and Second Laws of thermodynamics were developed that chemistry really took off. Many were involved in its development. Besides Sadi Carnot, a few notable names are James Maxwell, Rudolf Clausius, James Joule, Willard Gibbs and Ludwig Boltzmann.

The ideas they develop work well in chemistry. When the bonds are broken, energy must be injected into the system; and when the bonds are formed, energy is released to the surroundings. Some chemical reactions produce more randomness (higher entropy) and sometimes more order (lower entropy) as the atoms arrange to form products. Both energy (heat and work) and entropy (arbitrary) play an important role in the spontaneity of a chemical reaction.

Here is an example. Trinitrotoluene (TNT) can explode (a chemical reaction occurs quickly). From the chemical formula it has three nitrogen bonds. Most chemical explosives contain nitrogen in some form. The combustion of one mole of TNT releases 3,400 kJ mol-1 of energy,

C7H5N3O6(s) + 21/4 O2(g) à7 CO2(g) + 5/2 H2O(g) + 3/2 N2 (g) â†H = -3,400 kJmol-1

Compare this, however, with the burning power of sugars like sucrose (a slow chemical reaction),

C12H22O11(s) + 12 O2(g) à12 CO2(g) + 11 H2O(l) â†H = -5,644 kJ mol-1

Sucrose produces more energy per mole than TNT! So why doesn’t sucrose explode as well? Sucrose burns slowly compared to TNT, with a slow release of carbon dioxide. TNT burns so fast that a lot of energy is released in a short time. Moreover, solid TNT occupies a small volume, but the final volume is equal to 11 moles of gas (about 250 liters at STP). The destruction is caused not so much by the heat released but by the rapid expansion of the gases produced. Using the First Law, the energy released by one mole, (3,400 kJ) goes to a certain temperature but more work is done on the surroundings as the gas expands, and this can cause damage.

This is where entropy comes into play. Note that the right-hand side of TNT combustion has only 21/4 = 5.25 moles of gas, while the RHS has 11 moles of gas. This means that there is more distortion on the RHS than on the LHS. Obviously the rapid expansion of TNT’s combustion can lead to destruction (it will knock Humpty Dumpty into his wall) and cause massive disruption and therefore entropy increases. Both energy and entropy are favorable for this reaction to proceed. This is not always the case, especially in biological processes, where entropy, not energy, is the main driving factor.

Thermodynamics tells us which chemicals will proceed and which will not. Chemical Kinetics tells us how fast those reactions happen, and how much energy is needed to start the reaction. TNT is less sensitive to shock because it has a higher activation energy. On the other hand, Nitroglycerine, (NG), another explosive chemical (with many nitrogen bonds), explodes with a small shock and cannot be delivered in liquid form at room temperature. It has low activation energy. Alfred Nobel solved the problem of nitroglycerine by inventing dynamite: reducing the sensation of shock by absorbing NG in sawdust, paper or absorbent materials. The patent was so successful that he bequeathed us a Nobel Prize.

Equilibrium thermodynamics is a closed field today with no new fundamental research being done. It is a beautiful, complete and refined theory that gives the relationship between macroscopic quantities that we can measure: energy, heat capacity, compressive properties and many others, and has wide applications.

Thermodynamics is essential knowledge for all chemists. However thermodynamics fails to explain why this relationship exists. This is given by another beautiful theory called Statistical Mechanics.

Physical Chemistry covers all of these.

There’s a lot more to say, but that’s a summary. In fact many say that thermodynamics is not the right term because it describes properties of equilibrium, not a dynamic one. A better name would be thermostatics – but no one calls it that.

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