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Temperature – Freezing and Boiling
There are different scales of temperature. The temperature scale of the International System of Units is Kelvin, but it is mostly used in laboratories, not in real life. In Europe, the most commonly used temperature is Celsius, which can be calculated by subtracting 273 from the Kelvin temperature. Celsius was created to satisfy the requirement to have the freezing point of water at 0. Since many complex molecules, including organic ones made partly of hydrogen and oxygen atoms, are not water, the freezing point of water is very important.
Another important temperature scale is Fahrenheit which is mainly used in America. The formula to convert from Celsius to Fahrenheit is very complicated. The value in Fahrenheit can be found by multiplying the Celsius value by 1.8 and then adding 32. The freezing point of water is 32 Fahrenheit. The best way to make the conversion is to use an online temperature converter
I will explain what happens when water freezes and boils. Water has 2 hydrogen atoms and 1 oxygen atom. In the case of a normal liquid, the water molecules move around and play, exerting forces of attraction on each other. The speed of the molecules depends on the temperature. Sometimes, some water molecules, hitting others get an extra speed that will prevent the force of attraction between them and those molecules will rise in the air, which happens with the rise of steam. When the temperature gets hotter and hotter, the speed of the molecules will increase until it is very difficult for them to stick to each other and the speed of vaporization will be very high. This happens when the water reaches 100 degrees, what we call boiling water.
At that temperature, the number of molecules is so high that most of them move, carrying with them a large amount of energy, leaving the water after freezing. Even if the water is on fire, the temperature will not rise again because the heat is absorbed by the water molecules that evaporate.
When the temperature drops close to 0 degrees, water molecules lose speed, the attraction between them increases and eventually, they light up and form ice. We all know that the volume of water increases when it freezes. This happens because the hydrogen atoms use a strong attraction that makes the water molecules align in a certain area, leaving small spaces between them, and this makes the volume higher while the number of molecules is the same.
The speed of atoms and molecules depends on temperature in all things, but they don’t have the same speed as water. For example, titanium melts at 1668 degrees Celsius, the temperature at which its atoms begin to weaken the attraction between them.
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